The doctrinal result of Chalcedon (451) was a vigorous debate not dissimilar to that which followed Nicaea (325). It will be helpful to describe the three major groups that interacted against each other in the aftermath of Chalcedon - the Dyophysites (or 'Nestorians'), the Anti-Chalcedonians ('Miaphysites') and the Chalcedonians - as well as an imperially sponsored attempt to reconcile the factions.
Dyophysites (sometimes called Nestorians, for their support ofNestorius) had been leaving the empire since the decision against them at Ephesus in 431 and subsequent Roman legislation in 435.62 An earlier group of Antiochene theologians (sometimes, but perhaps misleadingly, called the 'School of Antioch') had emphasised the activity of the humanity in Jesus Christ and favoured a literal-ist approach to reading scripture, though it must be remembered that ancient literal interpretations were dissimilar to modern fundamentalist interpretations. Diodore, bishop of Tarsus by 382 (d. c. 390) and a significant figure at the Council of Constantinople (381), was one of the earliest leaders. He had studied philosophy in Athens and wrote intriguing commentaries on scripture in which he expressed serious misgivings about some allegorical interpretations. Origen was his foil. Fragments of his comments on Paul and his reconstructed interpretation of the Psalms show that he was much interested in the narratives of the Bible and in the Old Testament as a type of the New. Diodore attacked paganism, particularly the efforts of the emperor Julian. He supported Meletius (d. 381) as Nicene bishop of Antioch and stood against the teaching of the Arians and the Apollinarians, insisting that both did damage to the human nature of Jesus and, further, that the Arians made the divine nature of the Son a secondary creation. Although his legacy is fragmentary and possibly interpolated at places by Apollinarians, his views form the background of the
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