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Aramaic, scholars had produced the first biblical translations into Syriac, texts that were already revised by the fourth century. The Diatessaron (a harmony of the four Gospels into one text) of Tatian, a second-century Greek or Syrian scholar, may well have been the earliest non-Marcionite Syriac Christian text to circulate in northern Mesopotamia. A Greek fragment of the Diatessaron was discovered in Dura Europos. Destroyed by the Persians in 256, the city contained a house church with...

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411 44, 232, 233, 234, 305, 375 418 41, 374, 375, 393, 396, 517 Cassiodorus 319, 578, 621, 681 catacombs 717-18, 719 catechumenate 192, 201, 504, 580 and instruction 193,196, 330, 504-5 and martyrdom 519 catenae 161, 334 Cathars 294 cathedral office 606, 609, 613 catholicity see orthodoxy, Nicene Celestine of Rome (422-32) 26, 60, 88, 377, clerical 133, 390, 570, 590 and marriage 596 monastic 81,133, 638, 639, 641, 647 in Roman society 585, 586 Celsus 253, 299 Celtic Christianities 59-63, 578,...

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In various forms within almost all the genres of late antique Christian literature. The genres common to both cultures included commentaries, letters, treatises, public orations, biography, historiography and poetry. The advent of Christianity gave rise to some new, hybrid forms such as homilies and flori-legia. The only distinctively Christian genres that the new dominant culture produced were popular forms, such as liturgical hymns, the pilgrim's journal, and monastic literature. A common...

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One can perhaps extrapolate, mutatis mutandis, from the few examples of contacts between mystical stances among Christians and Jews to other fields of cultural contact. Mystical experience, at least what we can know from our sources, was a matter for intellectuals, or at least religious virtuosi. Education, religious law and theology are fields in which it is plausible to expect some kind of cultural dynamics between the elites of the two communities. Despite the deep lack of symmetry between...

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Jerome's early life exemplifies what good use a Christian convert could make of his pagan rhetorical training.24 Born in Stridon, on the border of Dalmatia and Pannonia, he was educated in rhetoric at Rome, where he converted to Christianity. He undertook theological studies at Trier. The giant of Latin rhetoric, and the main model for his secular education, was Cicero. For Cicero, eloquence was synonymous with wisdom,25 and the practice of rhetoric for any end was itself a kind of philosophy....

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Hurst, T. 'The epistles of Timothy I of Baghdad A study in Christian-Muslim controversy', Ph.D. dissertation, The Catholic University of America, 1986 Johnson, D. Anti-chalcedonian polemics in Coptic texts, 451-641', in B. A. Pearons and J. E. Goehring, eds., The roots of Egyptian Christianity (Philadelphia, 1986), 216-34 Kelly, J. N. D. Early Christian creeds (London, 19723) Golden Mouth. The story of John Chrysostom Ascetic, preacher, bishop (Ithaca, NY, 1996) Kennedy, G. Greek rhetoric under...

Ephesus 431

Theodosius took the appeal seriously and with his co-emperor Valentinian III and Pope Celestine I he called a council to meet at Ephesus in 431. Cyril, bishop of Alexandria (412-44), was furious at Nestorius and exchanged letters with him one letter included his twelve anathemas against the bishop of Constantinople.51 He came to Ephesus with his minions well before the arrival of the Roman legates or the Antiochene contingent, who had been delayed by floods. Assisted by Memnon, bishop of...

Claudia Raff

The period beginning around the year 300 was a time of experimentation with expressions of faith, piety and belief. The legitimating of Christianity at the end of the Persecutions in 312 and the prospect of lasting imperial support for Christianity and its practitioners opened up new opportunities for social acceptance and public expression of the faith. By around the year 600, experimentation had turned to solidification and a firm groundwork was established that future generations would evoke...

Anna Leone

The diffusion of Christianity in North Africa was marked by complex interaction on several fronts, initially between pagans and Christians, and later within the church itself as schisms occurred. The Christianisation of North Africa resulted in a progressive acquisition of power (both religious and secular economic) by the clergy. This chapter will synthesise the main phases of this process, paying particular attention to the role of the clergy, its transformation over the centuries and the...

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Recherches d'histoire et d'archeologie Henchir el-Faouar, Tunisie La cit des Belalitani Maiores (Tunis, 1978) Marazzi, F. l'patrimonia Sanctae Romanae Ecclesiae' nel Lazio (secoli IV-X) Struttura ammini- strativa e prassi gestionali (Rome, 1998) Martorelli, A. 'Riflessioni sulle attivit produttive neU'et tardoantica e altomedievale Esiste un artigianato ecclesiastico ', Rivista di archeologia cristiana 75 (1999) 571-96 Mazzarino, S. Antico, tardoantico ed era costantiniana (Rome,...

Secondary Sources

Abramowski, L. 'Die Streit um Diodor und Theodor zwischen den beiden ephesinischen Konzilien', ZKG 67 (1955-6) 252-87 Allen, P. 'Monophysiten', TRE 23 219-33 'The use of heretics and heresies in the Greek church historians Studies in Socrates and Theodoret', in G. Clarke, ed., Reading the past in late antiquity (Rushcutters Bay, 1990), 265-89 Bammel, Caroline. 'Peacemaking and religious tolerance in the early church,' in Tradition and exegesis in the early Christian writers (London, 1995), 1-13...

Primary Sources

Acta martyrum Les actes des martyrs de l'Egypte tires des manuscrits coptes de la Biblioth que Vaticane et du Mus e Borgia, i, ed. H. Hyvernat (Paris, 1886-7) Aetius, 'The Syntagmation of Aetius the Anomean', ed. and trans. L. R. Wickham, JTS N.s. 19 (1968) 532-69 Ammianus Marcellinus, trans. J. C. Rofe, LCL (London, 1950-2) Apopthegmata Patrum, systematic collection (SC 387, 474) Besa Life of Shenoute, trans. D. N. Bell (Kalamazoo, MI, 1983) CodexJustinianus (CJ), ed. P. Kruger. Corpus iuris...

David G Hunter

The years under consideration in this volume witnessed the remarkable transformation of Christianity from a persecuted minority sect into the dominant political and cultural force in the Mediterranean world. One aspect of this development was the formation of a set of discourses and practices regarding sexual, marital and familial life. The extension of ecclesiastical (and, to a lesser extent, imperial) authority into areas of human life previously regarded as private produced what has been...

Abbreviations

ANRW Aufstieg und Niedergang der r mischen Welt BASP Bulletin of the American Society ofPapyrologists BCTH Bulletin du Comit des Travaux Historiques et Scientifiques BETL Bibliotheca ephemeridum theologicarum lovaniensium BHG Bibliotheca Hagiographica Graeca BHO Bibliotheca Hagiographica Orientalis BSNAF Bulletin de la Societe Nationale des Antiquaires de France BZAW Beihefte zur Zeitschrift fur die alttestamentliche Wissenschaft CCSG Corpus Christianorum Series Graeca CCSL Corpus Christianorum...

Constantinople 553

It was in the great hall of Hagia Sophia Cathedral that Justinian convened a council on 5 May 553. Two theological controversies needed to be redressed. The first was the need to reach a consensus about the Christological claims of Theodore of Mopsuestia, Theodoret and Ibas of Edessa their works in question were called the 'Three Chapters'. Divergent responses to their writings were leading to further divisions within an already fractious situation. Another set of problems had emerged...

I

Indicates active devotees to this god.2 In some North African cities, theatres and amphitheatres were still pulling in big audiences, as in the Bulla Regia mentioned by Augustine.3 Some pagan traditions developed into Christian ones. The pagan practice of holding banquets and celebrations on tombs, to keep the anniversary of the death, continued in the Christian tradition. This observance consisted of bread mixed with water and wine, which was first consumed by the visitors (epulis...

Augustine Casiday

'The Son of Man is come to seek and save that which is lost' (Luke 19.19) with this description of their Lord's mission, Christians understandably came to regard salvation and sin as master themes for their lives. In fact, these themes are so pervasive that discussions ofthem take on as many forms as Christianity itself does. This near ubiquity makes it exceedingly difficult to appreciate the subject in a way that does justice to evidence from across the Mediterranean basin and Near East in...

Western Christianities

The story of Western Christianities from Constantine to the close of the sixth century is one of both expansion and the formation of diverse Christianities. The expansion is slow and difficult to trace at the beginning of the fourth century, the Western regions of the Roman empire were much less Christianised than the East, only an estimated 2 per cent of the population.1 Although the progress can be tentatively gauged from the archaeological and epigraphic records or from the multiplication of...

Samuel Rubenson

The emergence of monasticism in the East, its rapid development in the fourth and fifth centuries and its establishment as a major institution in Christianity are among the most significant phenomena in the history of Christianity. Although asceticism as such has deep roots in ancient society, both in the various religious traditions of the Eastern Mediterranean and in the Greek philosophical tradition, the emergence ofmonasticism constitutes a strikingly rapid and radical change of social,...

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In various Central Asian areas, including Kushan. By the end of the fifth century, missionaries including John of Resaina had established churches among the White Huns in Bactria. During this same period there were East Syrian bishoprics established in cities along the Oxus river, in Naishapur, Herat, Gilan and Merv. Other bishoprics were established in Kaskar, Samarkand and Turkmenistan. There were certainly Christians there to support these bishoprics when they were established. In 591,...

Rebecca Lyman

Heresiology was the combative theological genre for asserting true Christian doctrine through hostile definition and ecclesiastical exclusion. In the fourth to sixth centuries the union of Christian orthodoxy with Roman political power can easily seem to modern eyes to be a bad match. Emperors peeved by the inability of religious practitioners to come to an enforceable consensus for the protection of the state worked with bishops increasingly polarised by local traditions and civic unrest in a...

The aftermath of Chalcedon and the Acacian schism

As schisms within the churches of the Nicene tradition broke out after Chalcedon, the emperors and bishops of Constantinople faced the consequences. They tried to re-integrate Nicaeno-Chalcedonian Christianity 27 ILCV 980. The inscription is dedicated to St John the Evangelist, at whose shrine in Ephesus Hilary had prayed for help. See A. Mandouze, Prosopographie, ii.i 989-92 H. Chadwick, The church in ancient society, 558-67. 28 This episode is discussed by K.-H. Uthemann in ch. 19, below. 29...

Selected Specialised Studies And Sources

V 'Le falsificazioni simmachiane', Apollinaris 68 (1995) 205-20 Apostolic constitutions (SC 320, 329, 336) Barlow, C. W, ed. Martini episcopi Bracarensis opera omnia (New Haven, 1950) Benesevic, V N., ed. Ioannis Scolastici Synagoga L titulorum (Munich, 1937) Collins, Raymond F. 'The origins of church law', The jurist 61 (2001) 134-56 Concilia Africae a.345-a.525 (CCSL 149) Concilia Galliaea.314-a.506 (CCSL 148) Concilia Galliaea.511-a.695 (CCSL 148a) Connolly, R. H., ed. Didascalia...

Older Histories Of Canon Law And Reference Works

Dictionnaire de droit canonique, 7 vols. (Paris, 1924-65) Garcia y Garcia, Antonio. Historia del derecho canOnico, 1 El primer milenio (Salamanca, 1967) Gaudemet, Jean and Gabriel Le Bras, eds. Histoire du droit et des institutions de l'eglise en occident Vol. i Gabriel Le Bras. Prolegom nes (Paris, 1955) Vol. ii Jean Dauvillier. Les temps apostoliques 1er siecle (Paris, 1970) Vol. Iii Jean Gaudemet. L' glise dans l'empire romain IVe-Ve siecles (Paris, 1958) Jaff , P., ed. Regestapontificum...

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So that visitors collected oil, earth, water, dust or a rock from the place. Chrysostom catalogues these devotions in one sermon delivered at a martyr's festival Stay beside the tomb of the martyr there pour out fountains of tears. Have a contrite mind raise a blessing from the tomb. Take her as an advocate in your prayers and immerse yourself perpetually in the stories of his struggles. Embrace the coffin, nail yourself to the chest. Not just the martyrs' bones, but even their tombs and chests...

H A Drake

Near the beginning of the period covered by this volume, Bishop Eusebius of Caesarea, the celebrated 'father of church history', composed two addresses in which he praised the accomplishments of Constantine's reign. Toward its end, another Christian clergyman, the deacon Agapetus, addressed a series of aphorisms on kingship to the emperor Justinian.1 The two works serve as a convenient means to bracket the monumental changes that the church underwent during these centuries as it moved from the...

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'Introduction Approaches to Coptic pilgrimage', in Pilgrimage and holy space in late antique Egypt Leiden, 1998 , 3-48 Religion in Roman Egypt Assimilation and resistance Princeton, 1998 'Syncretism and the holy man in late antique Egypt', JECS 11 2003 339-85 'Voices, books, and dreams The diversification of divination media in late antique Egypt', in Sarah Iles Johnston and Peter Struck, eds., Mantike. Studies in ancient divination Leiden, 2005 , 233-54 Geffcken, Johannes. The last days of...

Primary Texts

Yves Courtonne, Saint Basile. Lettres Paris, 1957, 1961, 1966 Bidez,J., and F. Cumont, eds. Imperatoris Caesaris Flavii Claudii Iuliani epistulae, leges, poemata, fragmenta varia Paris, 1922 Callinicus of Rufinianae. De vita S. Hypatii liber Leipzig, 1895 SC 177 Codex Justinianus CJ . Ed. P. Kr ger, Corpus iuris civilis Berlin, 1929 Cosmas of Jerusalem. Scholia in Gregorii Nazianzeni carmina PG 38 341-680 Damascius. Das Leben des Philosophen Isidors von Damaskios aus...

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A reluctant heretic Woodbridge, Suffolk, 1988 Richard, M. 'Notes sur les floril ges dogmatiques du Ve et du VIe si cle', Actes du VIe Congres Internationale d'Etudes Byzantines Brussels, 1950 , 1 307-18 Rousseau, P. Basil of Caesarea Berkeley, 1998 Sahas, D. John of Damascus on Islam Leiden, 1972 Shaw, B. 'African Christianity Disputes, definitions and Donatists', in Orthodoxy and heresy in religious movements Discipline and dissent Lewiston, NY, 1992 , 5-34 Sillett, H. M....

Karlheinz Uthemann

The earliest biblical confessions of Jesus were varied, yet linked. He was the Messiah, the fulfilment of Israel's hopes and the eschatological accomplishment of God's reign, even as he was also a prophet promised by Moses and a teacher in the wisdom tradition. His death demonstrated God's salvation his resurrection proclaimed him alive. Therefore, as the Christian community moved from the Old Testament, the word ofGod, to the Christian Bible, these different Christologies were connected....

Andre De Halleux Hypostase Personne

As long as both the unity and distinction were safeguarded and neither an 'Arian' subordinationism nor a 'Sabellian' modalism was intended. The Alexandrian council thus based its terminological tolerance on an admission from both sides of the validity of the other's emphasis, whether that be the unity of the substance or the irreducible reality ofthe three divine subsistents. However, the lack of terminological consensus continued to undermine the commitment to tolerance, which was further...

C. Munier Carthage. V. Councils

Respects so vital for the future of Christianity in the West, as the towering genius of Augustine alone assured. Africa is usually considered the most 'Christianised' region of the Western empire. There were about 250 episcopal sees in all Roman Africa around the year 300 by the early fifth century, the number had soared to 650.137 During the fourth century the majority of the often only superficially Romanised population apparently became Christian.138 At the beginning of the fifth century,...

Spain

As with Gaul, the watershed for Christianity in Spain was the invasion of various Germanic nations from 406 7. In 409, the Vandals, Alans and Sueves crossed the Pyrenees and wrought havoc in the provinces of Roman Spain. Only Tarraconnensis remained under Roman rule. Between 416 and 418, victorious Visigothic forces now Roman allies repelled the Alans and the Siling Vandals. In 429 the Vandals left Spain for North Africa. In two invasions 468 and 472 3 , the Visigothic king Euric brought Spain...

Contributors

Khaled Anatolios, Weston Jesuit School of Theology Paul M. Blowers, Emmanuel School of Religion Beat Brenk, Universita di Roma I 'La Sapienza' and emeritus, Universit t Basel Alan Brown, Trinity College, Cambridge David Bundy, Fuller Theological Seminary Augustine Casiday, University of Wales, Lampeter H. A. Drake, University of California, Santa Barbara David Frankfurter, University of New Hampshire Rowan A. Greer, emeritus, Yale Divinity School David G. Hunter, Iowa State University Samuel N....