Techniques For Maintaining Good Karma

Master Karma

This Master Karma ebook gives you a way to understand your life in terms of Eastern Philosophy and change your life in small be impactful ways. You will learn how seemingly tiny actions you can take throughout the day can actually make your life much better, and you will learn what you have to avoid in order to prevent bad karma from completely messing up your life. Dr. Steve G. Jones is a clinical hypnotherapist, and this book combines the science of hypnotherapy with the philosophy of karma to create an unstoppable healing force that helps you get out of the dumps and change your life. Karma is a natural force; it is as unchangeable as gravity. But that does not mean that you can't harness the power of karma to change your life; this book teaches you how to do just that. Read more here...

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Sexedgendered relations unnatural identities

Social change will not come from spiritual rebirth, the weaving of dreams or spells or the re-emergence of the female as body or spirit, but from active political struggle against the structures and institutions ofcurrent society.'17 I share these objections to affinity ecofeminism and what follows will draw on the social ist forms of ecofeminism.18

Origin Meaning Morality Destiny

Buddha's answer on the question of morality does not cohere with his answer concerning origins. You see, Buddhism is technically nontheistic, if not atheistic. But if there was no Creator, from where does one arrive at a moral law Or consider the Hindu version of reincarnation. If every birth is a rebirth, and if every life pays for the previous life, then what were you paying for in your first birth You see-incoherence dominates.

Theology and Phronesis

Over the last several decades, there has been a rebirth of what is commonly called practical philosophy. This turn in philosophy has had important implications for theology, social theory, and the more discrete social sciences such as sociology, psychology, political science, and economics. It is associated with the hermeneutic philosophy of Hans-Georg Gadamer and Paul Ricoeur, the ordinary language analysis of Wittgenstein and Peter Winch, the discourse ethics of J rgen Habermas, and American pragmatism - especially the recent work of Richard Rorty and Richard Bernstein (Rorty 1979, Ricoeur 1981a, Gadamer 1960 1982, Habermas 1990).3

The Codex Calendar of 354 CE

The Codex-Calendar was made by and for a Christian. By the latter fourth century some Christian holidays were already a part of the fabric of daily life in Rome, yet Christian holidays were not included in the calendar. Instead, the calendar seems to have been important as a pagan Roman historical artifact. For Damasus, however, the imperial pagan past preserved in the Codex would guarantee Rome's renovatio, rebirth, as a Christian capital. He simply applied Christian holy time to the pagan religious calendar to create a new calendrical cycle of Christian holy days.

The Reformation and Puritan Attitudes toward the Jews

In His Apocalypsis Apocalypseos, meaning, 'A Revelation of the Revelation', Brightman taught that the Turkish empire would be brought to an end followed by 'the calling of the Jews to be a Christian nation,' leading to 'a most happy tranquility from thence to the end of the world'. In 1635 he completed a commentary on Daniel 11-12 which he sub-titled, 'The restoring of the Jewes and their callinge to the faith of Christ after the utter overthrow of their three enemies is set forth in livelie colours.' Brightman not only believed the Jewish people would come to faith in Jesus Christ, he was also convinced of 'the rebirth of a Christian Israelite nation' which would become 'the centre of a Christian world.'52

Rites of initiation

In the present rite a lengthy blessing of the font follows, with diaconal biddings to prayer, a greeting, and then an actual blessing prayer. This begins with a form of sursum corda with one response which is reminiscent of the Church of the East formulation. The prayer is patterned on the anaphora, and includes sanctus and benedictus, and an extremely long invocation of the Holy Spirit. The emphasis in this prayer is on the font as womb, and passing from being an earthly Adam to rebirth as a heavenly Adam. The celebrant signs the font with the cross before the blessing, and during the blessing myron is poured into the water in the form of a cross.

Dialectical Thoughtproject

Learner in receiving the condition for understanding the truth can be called a conversion and rebirth since it involves a conscious turning around by the learner, repentance or sorrow over his her former state, and a transition from untruth to truth or non-being to being (18-19). With the substitution of Christian terminology to characterize this alternative way of learning and acquiring the truth, it immediately becomes familiar, so familiar in fact that Climacus anticipates the objection that he has falsely claimed to invent a project that is common knowledge. He openly admits that it is not his own invention nor is it the invention of any other human being at least no one has stepped up to take credit for having invented it, which for Climacus is a test of 'the correctness of the hypothesis and demonstrates it' (PF 22). But the question he really wants to raise concerning the Christian hypothesis, particularly with regard to the notions of birth and rebirth, is not whether it is...

Dialogical Response To The Indian Renaissance And The Acknowledged Christ

Devanandan, the founder-director of CISRS, believed 'The real problem in Hindu India is to effect a synthesis between the traditional world-view and contemporary secularism it is in relation to this concern that the good news of God incarnate in Jesus Christ will have to be spelled out.'31 As he saw it, the present world, conditioned by many limitations, is both real and unreal, and without the paralysing limitation of karma samsaara, Christians have a glimpse of transformation and a vision of hope. He called Christians to help Hindus 'to redefine the very nature of what is called religion' by dialogical inter-penetration to find out the common goal and strive to achieve it. For him, participation in nation-building was an imperative for every Christian in order to spell out Christ convincingly.

The Uniqueness of the Incarnation

Is made by Julius Lipner, a specialist in the philosophy of Indian religions. After a detailed comparative study of the Hindu and Christian doctrines, he concludes that, for the Hindus, avatara are not fully human, conditioned by previous karma (the law of consequence) like the rest of us. They are appearances of the divine in human (or other) guise.56 H. H. Farmer, too, contrasts the notion 'of a divine being who merely drops into the human scene in an embodied form, unheralded, unprepared for, without roots in anything that has gone before in history and without any creative relationship to the unfolding of events in what comes after', with the embedded-ness of the story of Jesus in the history of the covenant, old and new.

The 20th Century Revival of Christian Zionism

Coincidentally, the New Scofield Reference Bible, a revision of the 1917 version, edited by Dr. E. Schuyler English and a team of dispensationalists including John F. Walvoord, was published in 1967 which, given its timing, inevitably fuelled greater interest in Christian Zionism.245 Ironically, Schuyler English had edited a young person's version of the Scofield Bible, entitled the Holy Bible, Pilgrim Edition, some twenty years earlier, in 1948.246 It is interesting to note that the popular edition of the Scofield Reference Bible was published in 1917 coinciding with the Balfour Declaration and in the words of Lord Cecil, 'the rebirth of a nation'247 the youth edition of Scofield with the War of Independence in 1948 and the 'new' edition of Scofield with the occupation of Jerusalem and the West Bank in 1967.

The Decline of Arab Christianity

Baghdad, they mediated to the world of Ottoman Islam. In the eighteenth century, and more widely in the nineteenth century, Christians were instrumental in introducing knowledge of European advances in science, philosophy, politics, and so on. The resulting Rebirth, Nahda, as it was called, channelled mainly through newly founded newspapers and journals, had widespread effects on intellectual, social and religious life among both Christians and Muslims in the decades leading up to and away from the year 1900. And it was particularly influential on the growth of Arab nationalism, which clamoured for regional recognition within the Ottoman Empire. The secularist Baath Party, which in different guises rose to power in Syria and Iraq, was founded by Michel 'Aflaq, who came from a Christian background.

The Integration Of Science And Theology

This effort to integrate theology and science is in part a continuation of the theological critique of the conflict thesis in the historiography of science and in part a reaction to the alleged barrenness of existentialist and neoorthodox theologies. It goes hand in hand with a rebirth of scientifically informed natural theologies (of which Swinburne (1979) is the best-known example).

The Wisdom of Forgiveness

Here, Master Yeshua is specifically applying this principle to mercy or forgiveness, suggesting that when we are merciful and forgiving we ourselves receive mercy or forgiveness. Within this saying is a deep understanding of the play of karma and the karmic matrix. The karmic matrix is formed of cords created by the interaction of souls and spiritual forces to which souls cling and thus become bound. While cultivating and cleaving to positive karmic connections is conducive to spiritual development and the evolution of souls, creating and clinging to negative karmic connections is counterproductive and injurious to souls. Unless we are willing to liberate one another from the cords that bind us through active forgiveness and compassion, quite simply, we remain bound to negative manifestations of karmic conditioning. In seek-ii our pound of flesh from those who have wronged us, as the saying goes, we then owe many more pounds of our own flesh to those whom we have wronged. This vicious...

True Meaning of Nirvana

Nirvana means the certitude of personal immortality in Spirit, not in Soul, which, as a finite emanation, must certainly disintegrate its particles a compound of human sensations, passions, and yearning for some objective kind of existence, before the immortal spirit of the Ego is quite freed, and henceforth secure against further transmigration in any form. And how can man ever reach this state so long as the Upadana, that state of longing for life, more life, does not disappear from the sentient being, from the Ahancara clothed, however, in a sublimated body It is the Upadana or the intense desire which produces WILL, and it is will which develops force, and the latter generates matter, or an object having form. Thus the disembodied Ego, through this sole undying desire in him, unconsciously furnishes the conditions of his successive self-procreations in various forms, which depend on his mental state and Karma, the good or bad deeds of his preceding existence, commonly called merit...

This New Age Leader Says Masonry Is The Universal Religion

For all who knew Him in earlier incarnations in the ancient East, all whom He cured or taught, all who contacted Him or in any way incurred karma with Him or with the Master Jesus, will have the opportunity to cooperate at this time. Each sincere aspirant who is closely connected with the present Church organisations, who feels a close link with the Christ and who loves Him, can be practically sure that in Palestine they saw Him, knew Him and mayhap served and loved Him.

History as Lived and as Seen

In our internal history time has a different feel and quality from that of the external time with which we deal as esoteric historians. The latter time resembles that of physics. Physics knows a plain man's time which has for him a valency like that of the real money of his province it also knows a sophisticated time which is aware of its own relativity. So in external history there is the time of the naive chronicler with his acceptance of dynastic dates, his reckonings of years since creation, his A. D.'s and B. C.'s or this history may think of time in the sophisticated way of a culture philosophy. But all these time-conceptions have one thing in common -- they are all quantitative all these times are numbered. Such time is always serial. In the series, past events are gone and future happenings are not yet. In internal history, on the other hand, our time is our duration. What is past is not gone it abides in us as our memory what is future is not...

Denying an Objective Standard

Reincarnation, karma Salvation is a multi-lifetime process of progression or digression.67 67. If one accumulates good karma, positive benefits accrue in later lives. Bad karma produces future punishments. Eventually one may leave the cycle of birth and rebirth entirely through the experience of enlightenment. Groothuis, Unmasking the New Age, p. 150.

Strategies Of Revival

The epitome of this style is Ghazall's Revival of the Sciences of Religion (Ihyi' 'ulUm al-din), an extraordinary work consisting of four parts, each of which comprises ten books. In this encyclopaedic text he deals with every conceivable aspect of Islamic belief and practice. This has been the model for many other works with the same synthetic and totalising purpose, none of which, however, is said to have surpassed it. His work as a whole does not amount to a rejection of the modernity of his day, since he showed how aspects of falsafa such as Aristotelian logic and ethics might be profitably employed in theology, and argued that the falaasifa themselves err in their use of the philosophical principles to which they are committed. As such, they could not help to revive a moribund Muslim world. But neither could the 'ulami', many of whom were trapped in formalistic, polemical exercises, both legal and theological. The solution was to be sought in a moral and spiritual rebirth.

The Arrogance Of Christianity

As for Buddhism, it was born when Gautama Buddha rejected two fundamental assertions of Hinduism the ultimate authority of the Vedas, which are their scriptures, and the caste system. Hinduism itself is absolutely uncompromising on two or three issues the law of karma, which is the law of moral cause and effect, so that every birth is a rebirth that makes recompense for the previous life the authority of the Vedas and reincarnation.

The politics of deep ecology

The principal political danger is that deep ecology will become captive to the political, liberal, right rather than proto-fascist forces.65 Clearly, there is an important issue here by which political forces may deep ecology be suborned. However, in my view, none of this discussion points to the conclusion of a convergence of deep ecology and fascism. According to Roger Griffin, fascism may be defined as 'a palingenetic to do with rebirth form of populist ultra-nationalism'.66 Given such a definition, deep ecology is not accurately described as fascist. Of course, some overlap may exist fascism also, in part, opposes modernity and is authoritarian, but its core commitments lie elsewhere. What perhaps is more pertinent in the critical consideration of deep ecology is its authoritarianism, especially with reference to democracy.

Baptism And Salvation

Baptism associating us with the death of Christ means that it is only through baptism that we can have access to forgiveness. We are buried with (Christ) in baptism, wherein also ye are risen with him through the operation of God, who hath raised him from the dead. And you, being dead in your sins hath he quickened together with him, having forgiven you all trespasses (Col. 2 12,13). We are washed in the name of the Lord Jesus (1 Cor. 6 11) - i.e. baptism into the name of Jesus is the means by which our sins are washed away. This was typified back in Num. 19 13, where those without the water of purification had to die. We demonstrated in Study 10.2 how baptism is a washing away of sins (cp. Acts 22 16). The descriptions of the believers as being washed from their sins in the blood of Christ therefore refers to their doing this by means of baptism (Rev. 1 5 7 14 Titus 3 5 N.I.V. speak of this as the washing of rebirth , referring to our being born of water at baptism John 3 5 ).

Love as Service Pietism and the Diaconal Movements

Spener's concern to develop social implementations of God's love was energetically pursued by one of his most dedicated followers, August Hermann Francke (1663-1727). While preparing for parish ministry, Francke went through a severe crisis of faith followed by a conversion experience that charted the rest of his life. Now certain of God's existence and his own spiritual rebirth, he became a pastor in Glaucha, an economically and socially depressed suburb of Halle, the site of the new Prussian University of Halle. Francke's theological orientation was to emphasize continual growth in faith and improvement of life. The converted person was to be continually zealous in overcoming sin and diligent in doing good. Where such marks are not evident, ''it is,'' he wrote, ''a certain and clear sign that the life which is from God is no longer in him. For where it is in the person, there is no standing still but rather continual advance and perpetual growth.''

What Happens When the Church Replaces Israel

Of this list, 3 and 5 stand out especially. If you follow Replacement Theology you get to a point where you teach that God has no end time dealings with Israel at all. You can't explain the prophecies being fulfilled today. You have to argue that the rebirth of Israel in 1948 has nothing to do with prophecy. And you have to explain away a host of other passages and prophecies still remaining to be fulfilled. The battle of Armageddon for example, gets 'spiritualized away' by some writers. Some, called preterists, even go so far as to try and make you think that all of Revelation has already happened and Jesus has already returned Like they say, be careful where you buy a used car

What does this parable of a householder teach

This is also known as the parable of the landowner and is recorded as well in Mk 12 1-12 and Lu 20 9-19. Here Jesus demonstrates the response to His ministry by the nation of Israel. The householder, or landowner, symbolizes God the husbandmen are the Jewish religious leaders the servants are the Old Testament prophets, and the son is Christ Himself. What happened to the servants in the parable is what happened to the Old Testament prophets (CP 1Ki 22 7-9, 13-14, 19-28 2Chr 24 20-22 36 15-16 Neh 9 26 Jer 2 30). The other vinedressers in V41 typify the gentiles who obtained the salvation that the Jews rejected (CP Ac 13 46-47). This is not to say though that there will not be a rebirth of the Jewish nation (CP Ro 11 7-11). There will be a rebirth of the Jewish nation when they repent of their unbelief and accept Jesus as Messiah (CP Zech 12 8-13 2 with Ro 11 23-28).

Mount Athos and Serb saints princes and emperors

The theory of the 'superordinate' centre offers an explanation for the paradox that the standing of the Byzantine Empire remained high, arguably rising further, after 'the God-protected city' succumbed to the Fourth Crusade, losing material wealth and unbroken continuity of sovereignty, as well as sacred relics. The city kept its allure even though it never fully recovered after 1204. But there were other, more specific, reasons why beliefs that the empire was divinely ordained could accommodate such a catastrophe. In Orthodox eyes the fate of the City was intertwined with that of the empire and God's design for mankind. The City's fall to barbarians could herald the End of Time, but it might alternatively warn His people to mend their ways and find spiritual rebirth. Such had been the theme of preachers during barbarian assaults in earlier centuries.22 The collapse could therefore be interpreted as signalling God's demand for stricter religious observance from His people. The events...

Notes on contributors

Carol Christ is Director of the Ariadne Institute for the Study of Myth and Ritual in Molivos, Lesvos, Greece. She is the author of Diving Deep and Surfacing (Boston, MA Beacon Press, 1991), Laughter of Aphrodite Reflections on a Journey (New York Harper and Row, 1987), and Rebirth of the Goddess (London Routledge, 1998), and co-editor of Womanspirit Rising A Feminist Reader in Religion (New York Harper and Row, 1979) and Weaving the Visions New Patterns in Feminist Spirituality (San Francisco, CA HarperCollins, 1989).

Restoration Of Israel

Here are some of the passages which speak of the restoration of Israel. Of course, it God is finished with Israel, how do you explain that they began to be fulfilled in the post war years I mean how can someone say that the rebirth of the State of Israel in 1948 is just a coincidence Or how can they claim that it has nothing to do with bible prophecy, and still expect to be taken seriously

Ishtar

Val for the rebirth of the sun, and call it His Son's birthday. He would not promote Halloween , called such because it was all Hal-loweds' Eve'n, the night before All Saints' Day, a re-invented Druid feast of the dead. HYhy would not continue to sacrifice His beloved Son over and over in a ghastly mass ritual but ha Shatan would. HYhy would not have us praying to anyone but Himself in His Son's Name, but Shatan guides the Church of Rome to pray to Miryam, and many other so-called dead saints for blessings, protection, guidance, and intercession. I can go on and on. But, if there is the chance that these things are being misunderstood, perhaps the pope would like to discuss some of these issues with myself or any other Nazarene, then let it be televised world-wide in the City of Yerushaliyim. We'll bring OWYhy with us.

Elizabeth Stuart

So in the end, as the church commits the whole person - body and soul - to God, the church teaches something so radical about our sexual and gendered identities that it itself seems unable at the present time to digest its own teaching. The church teaches that in the end all other identities other than that conveyed through baptism are relativized (which is not to say that they are dismissed as unimportant as the involvement of friends and family and the opportunity provided for some personal remembrance of the deceased in some rites indicates). There is only one identity stable enough to hope in. At death my church teaches me that all my secular identities are placed under eschatological erasure. They are not matters of ultimate concern. At my death all that has been written on my body will be once again overwritten by my baptism as it was a few weeks after my birth when I was immersed in the waters of death and rebirth and a new character was given to me which nothing can ever...

The dearly departed

As a teenager, Finch learned that she could haze her perception while walking among the graves, allowing her to see and interact with the dead who reside there. The realm of the dead in Reynolds's account is transient. At first they are leaden and restricted to their coffins, but as they tell their stories to each other - shedding their burdens and secrets - they lighten, gain in mobility, and eventually rise and fade to the next level of existence. The recently dead awaken in their graves, inevitably disappointed that there is no hullabaloo no saints waiting by walls of jasper, no harp music, no reincarnation into another body or life form. They are greeted by the Mediator and instructed You sleep in the coffin, you work in the air In life, you lived on just one shelf. Now you're on two. The one above life, the one below, to help you see where you've been. 23 Reynolds adds to this picture the revelation that it is the dead we have to thank for the change of seasons, the opening of...

Pneumatology

The three persons, and rejects the subordination of pneumatology to Christology. The principle for both pneumatology and Christology is that they must be understood in relation to each other within an overall trinitarian framework, rather than that pneumatology should be developed exclusively from Christology. This allows Moltmann to give more attention to the Spirit's role for its own sake than the Western theological tradition has often done. His attention to pneumatology also, however, corresponds to his growing stress on the immanence of God in creation, as his eschatological panentheism (the hope that God will indwell all things in the new creation) has been increasingly accompanied by a stress on the coinherence of God and the world already. As the Spirit, God is already present in his creation, both in suffering the transience and evil of the world and in anticipating the eschatological rebirth of all things. Thirdly, the notion of the Spirit as the divine source of all life...

Mystery Religions

Like Christianity, the mystery religions of the Greco-Roman world promised a blessed life after death through a ritual revelation and communion with the god. The most famous of the mystery religions in the ancient world was the annual ceremony connected to the worship of Demeter and her daughter Kore Persephone at Eleusis, near Athens. The story of Demeter and Persephone is a mythical explanation for the seasons and their agricultural cycles. During the Eleusinian mysteries, the abduction of Persephone by Hades was ritually reenacted in a procession from Athens to Eleusis. At Eleusis, the initiates entered a dark pathway (a metaphor for death) and experienced a mystical union with the divine that left them serenely reconciled to death and hopeful of a blessed afterlife (a metaphor for the burgeoning of life in the spring). The rites of Isis and Osiris in Egypt and of Attis and Cybele in the Near East have their roots in a similar agricultural cycle of death and rebirth. In the...

Amy Hollywood

In the face of what the social historian Judith Bennett refers to as the virtual absence of actual women from the sources of medieval lesbianisms, a number of literary and cultural scholars have recently turned to texts by and or about women to uncover homoerotic possibilities within the metaphoric structures of their writings or in the practices ascribed to women or female characters within literary and religious documents (Bennett 2000 7).1 Karma Lochrie, for example, looks to a number of medieval devotional texts and images in which Christ's bloody side wound becomes a locus of desire.2 According to Lochrie, not only is Christ's body feminized through its association with women's (and particularly the Virgin Mary's) nurturing breasts, as Caroline Walker Bynum famously argues, but religious representations also genitalize Christ's wound, associating it both imagistically and linguistically with the vulva.3 When women mystics write about eagerly kissing the sacred wound, then, their...

Spiritual Decline

However, the history of Christian spirituality prior to the collapse of the medieval synthesis was itself marked by a shift towards individualism and pseudo-interiority. In the West, while the fourteenth century saw both a flowering of mysticism and a rebirth of the radical Christian tradition of social protest, there was a marked tendency towards an individualistic and passive approach from the twelfth century onwards. We can already see the beginnings of the split between spirituality and action in the devotional life of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. The Flemish mystic Ruysbroeck speaks harshly of what he terms 'false vacancy'

The Spiritual Ground

Within and behind this commandment arc more subtle and sublime truths, according to Sophian teachings associated with it. First ai d foremost is the idea of the karmic continuum that moves with the soui, which strongly influences and is reflected in the circumstances, situations, and events that unfold in our lives. Thus, the family and environment into which we arc born, the place and time, how we are raised and the education we receive, all reflect the karmic continuum of the soul. This is not to suggest that we are responsible for the behavior of others, but rather that in some way, on some level, we are connected to the circumstances, situations, and events that arise. Karma is fundamentally a lav of cause and effect,- yet it can also represent things within ourselves we need to work through or need to heal. What transpires in our lives tends to reveal these things. On a certain level, this commandment encourages us to look and see what is to be worked through and healed so that...

Passover Seder

The actual word for Passover is PESACH. If something is Kosher (appropriate, approved) for Pesach, then it doesn't contain yeast or anything that makes it rise . This is to remind us of the hasty departure from the bondage of Egypt (Mitzraim) by the mighty hand of hYhy. It is always observed in the evening (darkening) at the 14th of the 1st month of the year, determined by the appearance of the green ears of the barley crop in Yisrael. This pictures the beginning of the redemption plan for OWYhy's bride, since He is the first fruits of the Reign of hYhy, our wave offering . Other neglected observances will be discussed in sequence. This wave offering occurred after the most significant event in the history of mankind The resurrection from the dead of Rabbi OWYhy. The first-born from the dead, of what will be a great harvest of mankind, was like grain, cut-down then, upon resurrecting, was waving . He is literally the first to be born of the spirit, because He doesn't have a body like...

Queering Tradition

It is not only that the mystics did not think in our terms, but that they sought to move beyond their own gender categories, making fluid what was otherwise stable. Their Christ is both male and female their soul both female and male and their self seeks dissolution through union with that which is both utterly far and near.16 This condition of the between subverts any attempt to retrieve stable identities, whether of desire or practice. Nevertheless, Hollywood argues that we can look for past experiences in the medieval texts when we take them as the discourses in which their authors sought to think - and so experience - their lives in relation to Christ and church. If we resist the temptation to reduce the erotic to the religious - for which Hollywood chides Bynum - and the corresponding temptation to reduce the religious to the erotic (as in a crude Freudianism), then we can find an erotic-mystical language which challenges both theological and gender categories, of both the...

Conclusion

These trends, growing increasingly strong with the fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries, ran alongside a steady continuance in the familiar mediaeval ways. Indeed, in some universities in late fifteenth-century Germany, courses in new humanist work were conducted on the fringes of the syllabus. For some decades two types of textbook of grammar and logic were being produced the old and the new, technically simplified, which claimed to cut through all the dead wood and present the essentials. Peter Ramus' reworking of Aristotle is perhaps the most influential of these. Universities, such as Wittenberg in the first half of the sixteenth century, which took a lead in the teaching of Greek and encouraged the new approach to the teaching of grammar and logic, can still be found conducting disputationes in the late mediaeval way, in the middle of the century. Scholasticism was noisily rejected by protestant scholarship in the sixteenth century and after, although its methods continued...

Calvin and Geneva

But what of the other Protestant movement Would it suffer the same fate After all, Zwingli and other Swiss Protestant reformers were strongly committed to a nationalist agenda, seeing the rebirth of what they regarded as authentic Christianity to be linked with the cultural and political renewal of their nation.8 Would this second form of Protestantism end up landlocked in the German-speaking cities and cantons of Switzerland, becoming, like Lutheranism, a territorial religion Or could it develop a sense of identity, a core vision, that would allow it to transcend national boundaries and become a truly international movement In the 1520s and early 1530s, it seemed to many that the Swiss reform movement was simply a regional religious movement whose history condemned it to a territorial future. Yet by 1560 it had become increasingly clear that this second form of Protestantism was capable of crossing political and social frontiers with ease. Something had happened to transform the...

Light And Darkness

It is perhaps unfair to class all Gnostics together. The finds of Nag Hammadi in 1945 have revealed the extraordinary richness and complexity of the phenomenon, misleadingly called 'Gnosticism'. The word 'Gnostic' comes from the Greek word for knowledge, gnosis, and many Gnostics, though not all, offered their followers a novel entrance into the divine mystery. This mystery usually took the form of a highly complex account of the origin of the world, which was usually regarded as deriving its existence as a result of cosmic sin committed in the upper world, which resulted in the creation of a lower one. Seeing the present order as sin-derived, as a sort of 'cosmic hiccough', they saw the way to God and to salvation as lying in escape from this world order. A negative attitude to this world and to its author is a feature common to most Gnostic systems, as is the promise to redeem the individual from it by secret knowledge. The whole system bore too close a similarity to orthodox...

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