Info

With judgment limited, that some might live, The law's dread curse upon the kingdom * fell;

Rev. xxii, 3; also the "110 more utter destruction; but Jerusalem shall be safely inhabited" (viz., the New Jerusalem), Zech. xiv, 11, with the words of Jerem. xxxi, 40.

" It shall not" (viz., " when built unto the Lord," v. 38, with Ps. cxxvii, 1, by the gift of the Holy Ghost upon Jew and Gentile in Christ, Jerem. xxxi, 31-37, with Heb. viii, 8-12; and Luke ii, 29-35), " be plucked up nor thrown down any more for ever." It follows that the Apostolic and earthly type of the New Jerusalem ever cometh down from above, and shall for ever outlive the Jerusalem of man's rebuilding, which was, with her children, in bondage to the spirit of the power of the world in the latter days of God's first covenant with Israel. For the spiritually redeemed of Christ from amongst the Gentiles (as by a way of holiness through faith in God), both before and since the date of his incarnation (John viii, 56; Heb. xi, 39, 40), with the evangelized Jews of the apostolic age (Matt, xix, 28), and the " All Israel" of succeeding generations (Rom. xi, 26), do, for Christ's sake, outlive the dissolution of their spirit's mortal body in natural death.

Thus all the righteous, from the beginning of the world, are scripturally regarded as having lived righteously through " the obedience of faith" (Rom. xvi, 26), or in that spirit of Christ which is the gift of the Holy Ghost, and the eternal glory of Christ's second advent, for the confirmation of God's new covenant with Israel, and with all flesh, unto an eternal communion of God's saints on earth and in heaven.—See 1 Thess. iv, 15-18, illustrating Zech. xiv, 5 ; Is. xxv, 7, xxvi, 19.

Such is, beyond all reasonable doubt, the true scriptural doctrine respecting " the restoration of the kingdom to Israel." Compare Luke xvii, 20, 21, with Matt, xvi, 2S; John xxi, 21-24; Rev. ix, 15-19; xv, 8, to end of cap. xviii.

* Compare Matt, xxiv, 22, with Dan. xii, 7, 11, 12; Zech. xii, 10; xiii to end of xiv. In Rom. xi, 25, 26, the words " Until the fulness of the Gentiles be come in ; and so all Israel shall be saved," &c., are to be explained of the times referred to in Galat. iv, 4. " When the fulness of time was come, God sent forth his Son, made of a woman, made under the law," &c. The " thnes of the Gentiles," as referred to in Luke xxi, 24, complete the true historic reference of the prediction, as fulfilled in the desolation of the typical sanctuary by the fiery judgment predicted in Dan. ix, 27, before the calling in of the Gentiles could be fully accomplished, by reason of Jewish prejudices and violent opposition.

Thus, the " end" of 1 Cor. xv, 24, as that of the judgment (Dan. xii, 7, 11, 12 ; Matt, xxiv, 22), limited over the typical sanctuary, dated the time appointed for making general, or extending unto the Gentiles also (Ezek. xxxvii), that resurrection from death unto life which commences spiritually in the flesh; that the salvation of God may be experienced on earth, or in the body (1 Thess. v, 23, with Heb. iv, 12 ; and 1 Cor. xv, 35-38), as predicted over those of the better resurrection, Heb. xi, 35. For there is no salvation in man's mortal body, when

God to the living* wills to give

Faith's hope ; the limit who can tell 1

The rebuilding of the Walls of Jerusalem by Nehemiah in its relation to the Prophecies respecting the Restoration of the Kingdom to Israel.

The progress of the rebuilding, as described in Nehem. iii, does not represent the labours of all Israel applied continuously in the same direction round the city, until again arriving at the point from which they started. Yet, on comparing v. 1 and v. 31, this might seem to be the case.

The whole work was divided into three great portions. The first company, with the High Priest at their head, began at the Sheep Gate, at the southern side of the Citadel, and thenee proceeded, by the towers of Meah and Hananeel, and by the Fish Gate, to the Gate of Ephraim or Benjamin. About here they came upon the broad wall, and continued their operations to the Towner of the Furnaces. This, in Nehem. xii, 38, 30, was, on the dedication of the walls, inversely made the starting point of the company which, with Nehemiah after them, took the northern circuit of Mount Zion, and terminating their course at the Sheep Gate, on the western side, stood still in the Prison Gate. Thus it seems that the Prison Gate and the Sheep Gate were gates pertaining to the same enclosure, as will perhaps be made clearer by and bye.

The second company of builders began at the Valley Gate (Nehem. iii, 13), and, like the first company, at the dedication proceeded southward to the Dung Gate (cap. xii, 31, 37). But at the Fountain Gate, whieh was over against them, they went up by not experienced by the evidence of a Divine Comforter therein on earth. Again, the termination of the judgment ordained over the typical sanctuary represents the consummation of the outpouring of the seven vials after the opening of the (new) Temple of God in (the new) Heavens (of typical and Jewish prophecy), by the Resurrection and Ascension of Christ. For, though the new heavens were thus opened, as predicted, no man, Jew or Gentile, could enter peacefully therein until the typical sanctuary and stronghold of Jewish opposition was destroyed.

* Compare Zech. xiii, 0, with Is. xxxviii, 19; Ezek. xviii, 31, 32, and Lament, iii, 39.

the stairs of the city of David, at the going up of the wall above the house of David, even unto the Water Gate (Gate of the "Waters) eastward, i.e., eastward of Mount Zion. This gate was therefore on the high ground above the pool of Siloam, and probably protected the bridge by which Mount Zion and Mount Moriah were united, near the south-west corner of the temple area.

The third company was that of those who, with the Nethenims, encircled Ophel, by carrying the great western boundary of Zion onwards from the Fountain Gate, so as to enclose the pool of Siloam within the walls thus extended round the hill called Ophel to the south-east corner of the temple area (Nehem. iii, 2G, 27).

Fourthly, The priests, with the goldsmiths and merchants, completed the outer enclosure of the temple area " from above the Horse Gate" (v. 28). This was therefore within the enclosure called the Court of the Prison (viz., of the fort on Mount Zion.) Their work consequently extended along the northern and eastern boundaries of the temple area. The gate Miphkad would be the great eastern gate, or the Golden Gate of the middle ages.

Thus, on the western area of the temple enclosure in Nelie-miah's clay there seem only to have been tivo gates. Joseplms speaks of four after Bezetha was enclosed. The Water Gate, by the bridge at the south-west eorner leading from Mount Moriah to Mount Zion, and the Horse Gate (so called as accessible to horsemen from the plains (2 Kings xi, 16), at the north-west corner, leading from Mount Moriah to that part of Aera which came within the fortified enclosure of the eity and temple. David's wall, before the building of the temple, must have passed round the eastern brow of Zion above the Tyropseon, from the Joppa Gate to the south at Siloam.

The " Le-Hazar* ha-mittarah " of Nehem. iii, 25, will mean "facing the court of the fort," and denotes the relation of the fort on Mount Zion (as both the prison of the king's house and the guard-house of the royal palace) to the palace, whether spoken of David's palace or of Solomon's, or of " the house of the governor on this side the river," viz., of the viceroy for the kings of Babylon and Persia (Nehem. ii, 8.)

* The Hebrew word for court is the same as that in the compound words " Hazar-Hatticon," Ezek. xlvii, 16; Baal-Hazon, 2 Sam. xiii, 23; and En-Hazor, Josh, xix, 37.

This hist pidaee was situated by " the high gate of Benjamin, which was by the house of the Lord" (Jerern. xx, 2), and it waa also near " the broad wall" (Nehem. iii, 7, 8.)

Hence 1 infer that the whole circuit of the wall originally built by David round Mount Zion (2 Sam. v, 7, 9), with the Millo of Solomon's filling up in the valley of Tyropjeon (or eheesemakers) to connect the fortifications of the city with the north-west corner of the temple area, represents the court of the fort or the prison in JSTehcm. iii, 25. Also that this* when enlarged by the outer court of the house of the Lord, and by the addition of Ophel (a hill) to bring Solomon's palace within the fortified enclosure, constituted the old Jerusalem of Jewish prophecy, whose "battlements" were to be taken away a second time, and then by an everlasting destruction " as not the Lord's" (Jerem. v, 10, with xxxiii, 4, 5, and Isaiah xiv.) For these fortifications became the stronghold of a worldly policy, denounced by God's prophets as teaching Israel to rely on an arm of flesh rather than on a foundation of truth and righteousness through faith in God, that, thus sought, he would realise to the nation his promise of abiding peace.

Bearing these scriptural facts in mind, let us now proceed to trace the site of the Sheep Gate as that from which the rebuilding of Nehem. iii, 1, commenced. For this we have certain scriptural data by which it can be determined with considerable accuracy, when once the true site of the Fish Gate is found. But of the identity of the Fish Gate with the Yafia Gate I now entertain no doubt, though sorry to find myself here parting company for a while from my trustworthy companion Dr Robinson, though only to meet him again by the lower pool of Gihon, at the Valley Gate, from which JSehemiali commenced his first visit to the ruined walls (Nehem. ii, 13-10.)

The Fish Gate of Zeph. i, 10 (as there spoken of in relation to a second gate), was probably the first gate or corner gate of Zech. xiv, 10.

If so, " from the gate of Ephriam to the corner gate, 400 cubits" (2 Kings xiv, 13), will probably indicate the same locality as " from Benjamin's Gate unto the place of the first gate, unto the corner gate," Zeeh. xiv, 10. The relation of the Fish Gate to the lower pool of Gihon, and to the western wall of Zion from that point southwards, as stated in 2 Chrou. xxxiii, 14, establishes the identity of the Fish Gate with the YaiFa Gate, beyond a doubt to my mind. But between the Fish Gate and the Sheep Gate came the two towers of Hananeel and Ha-Meah. These probably "were towers of the citadel afterwards called Hippicus; Hananeel being the northern, and Ha-Meah the southern tower, nearest to which was the Sheep Gate.

The northern and eastern walls of the city are twice described by JSTehemiali, under an inverted oi'der of reference to the places passed in that circuit, thus :—

1. The Tower of the Furnaces.

2. The Broad Wall.

3. The Gate of Ephraim.

2. The Tower of the Hundred, or of

3. The Tower of Hananeel, as thus named for a memorial of God's graciousness.

4. The Fish Gute. This was the first or 4. The Old Gate.

corner gate facing the road to Joppa.

5. The Old Gate. This was probably 5. The Fish * Gate.

* In Zeph. i, 10, the Fish Gate is referred to as about to lie involved in a calamity which shall extend to some second gate, after which there should come " a crashing of the hills." Judah's overthrow was to be by a whirlwind from the norlh, Ezek. I and 4; Jerem. vi, 1; xxiii, 19, 20 ; xxx, 23, 24. Also the road from the present Damascus Gate has two terminations at a short distance from the Fish Gate, measuring, as it were in that direction, 400 cubits. We may therefore conclude that near here was the site of the gate of Ephraim, 2 Kings xiv, 12.

The " crashing of the hills," Zeph. i, 10, will elucidate Zech. xiv, 10, " all the land shall be turnedjas^a plain from Geba to Rimmon," as from hill to hill, or from Mount Zion to the Jlount of Offence, made the high place of Canaanitisli idolatry renewed by Solomon.—Zech. xiv, 21; and John iv, 21, 27. Geba comes from the Hebrew Gav, a back; and like the Latin dorsum was applied to the ridge of hills, as to the highest border of the Brazen Altar, otherwise also called the." Ilor-el" or Mount of God.—See the marginal reading of Ezek. xliii, 15. But Rimmon is the Hebrew for & pomegranate, which was an idolatrous symbol with the worshippers of Baal on high places—Compare the house of Rimmon, 2 Kings v, 18.

In Exod. xxviii, 33, the pomegranate seems also to have been appointed for a decoration of the High Priest's ephod, as if to memorialise thereby the fruitfulness of the promised land.

From these Scriptural facts a clue seems opening out for an intelligible interpretation of tho water flowing southward from under the Altar on the eastern side of the Temple area, in Eze-kiel's prophetic vision, chap, xlvii, 1-6.

For in Num. xxxv, 4, thesu&wrftsof the cities given to the Levites should extend outward from the wall of the city a thousand cubits round about; and the city was to stand in the midst of a square area measuring 2000 cubits on every side. With this let us next compare the specification of an interval of 1000 cubits from the Valley Gate to the Dung Gate, Nehem. iii, 13, and the 1000 cubits of Ezek. xlvii, 3-6.

Let us next compare the measuring reed of Ezek. xl, 3; xlvii, 3, with the plummet of the house of Ahab, 2 Kings xxi, 13; also Zech. ii, 1, 2; iv, 10, with Is. xxviii, 17; Jeiem. xxxi, 39.

Let us also bear in mind that the water from Solomon's pools (for " Engeili," Ezek. xlvii, 10, was near Etam or Urtas beyond Bethlehem, compare Dr Thompson's " The Land and the Book," vol. il, p. 421, and Robinson, vol. 1, p. 513) ceased from their northward flow, and took first a south-western direction, on entering the city by the lower pool of Ciihon at the valley, and thence the hi'jIt gate of Benjamin, (Jerein. xx, 2) ; and the high gate of 2 Chron. xxiii, 20, built by Uzziah, (2 Chron. xxvii, 3).

G. The Gate of Ephraim, (2 Kings xiv, 12), was probably the new gate of Jerem. xxxvi, 10. These gates were clearly situated near " the Throne of the Governor on this side the river," (Neliem. iii, 7.) For in Nehem. xii, 39, " the Gate of Ephraim" is substituted for "the Throne of the Governor," to identify the locality.

7. The Broad Wall, viz. the Millo of

Solomons filling up, in the valley of the Tyropseon, to enclose the whole Temple area within the fortifications of the City.

8. The Tower of the Furnaces—Com pare Neh. iii, 2 ; xii, 38.

6. The Tower of Hananeel.

7. The Tower of Hà-Mfah or the Hundred.

The Sheep Gate—-in a position to face the Prison Gate, being situated nearly at right angles thereto, an outer gate of the same fort enclosure.

If the former localities are fairly defined on scriptural evidence, then the Towers of Hananeel and Ha-Meah, being near the YafFa Gate, this Tower of the Furnaces must have stood on the north side of the Temple area, where the Tower of Antonia stood in the days of Josephus. For that part probably was not brought within the sacred enclosure of the Temple until the hill Bezetha was encompassed by the walls of Agrippa, A.D. 42 ; or at any rate not until the building of the second boundary wall on the north side. Then two new gates of access from the New City seem to have been added on the western side.

The first and old northern wall, as that of Neheiniah's reference deviated from its south-eastern bend above the Tyropason in the days of David, to a straighter course from the Bethlehem or Joppa Gate to the Horse Gate at the North-West corner of the Temple area. Between these extreme points the broad wall passed along the western side of the Temple area to somewhere near the Water Gate at the south-west corner. Possibly also it formed the foundation of the Tower of Antonia, on the north side.

In Nehem. iii. 25, 26, we are told of two towers " lying out," one by the place turning along the north-eastern brow of Mount Zion, entered the Temple area on the north side, and flowed out from under the south side of the Altar.—Compare Ezek. xlvi, 9.

There is no record of any place called " ICglaim." I believe the name therefore to have been typieal like that of " Engedi," which means the Fountain of the lvid, and Dr Thompsou tells us the rocks in the neighbourhood are called " the roeks of the wild goats," vol. ii, p. 420. In Hebrew Eglah meaus a young bullock, and the Dual number Eglaim tieo young bullocks.

May not the reference be therefore to the tiro calves of the idolatrous worship instituted by Jeroboam?—! Kings xii, 26-33.

over against the Water Gate towards the east, and there lying out from the King's high house that was by the court of the prison ; viz. that 011 Ophel, near the site of Solomon's palace.

The other, which the Tekoites repaired—(Compare the trumpet of Tekoa, Jerem. vi, 1 ; Amos i, 1 ; with the Heth-hacccrcm, or "house of the vineyards," in its relation to Solomon's gardens, Is. v, 1, 2, with Rev. xiv, 20), is called "the great tower that lieth out" as away from Ophel ; for they repaired even unto " the wall of Ophel " as from the northern to the southern Tower. This site for the' Tower of the Furnaces may perhaps be confirmed from 2 Chron. xxxiii, 3-8. For if Manasseh raised altars for idolatrous sacrifices in two Courts of the Lord's house, he would not scruple to worship Baal from a tower raised higher on the north side of the sacred enclosure, and lying out therefrom.

For these reasons I cannot identify its site with any supposed furnaces by the Dung Gate, for there burning the offal of the sacrifices and the filth of the city. See Calmet under the word Gehema, and p. 133 of my tract, "Thy kingdom come."

The general correctness of these deductions from Scripture is confirmed by Dr Robinson's antiquarian researches on the spot.

* For he has proved satisfactorily that what is marked for the pool of Bethesda by the Sheep Gate in the modern topographies of Jerusalem bears evident signs of having been only a fosse protecting against enemies the north end of the tower of Antonia. The arches he speaks of answer to the description given by Josephus of the manner in which an enlarged area was artificially constructed for the foundations of the lower cloisters of the Temple on Mount Moriah.

The pool of Betli-Hesda (as written in the Hebrew version of John v, 2, and meaning " the house of kindness"), was by the Sheep Gate of the Apostolic age, not that of monkish traditions, dating only from the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries.—Robinson, vol. 1, j). 47 G. The word gate seems to indicate the relation of the Sheep Market to the city, as noticed in the margin of our Bibles. Upon the clearest Scriptural evidence we see here that the Sheep Gate on the south of the tower of the hundred (Ha-Meah), could not have been far from the valley gate of the wall wherewith Manasseh encircled the lower fountain of Gihon, 2 Chron. xxxiii, 14, for that was without doubt the " dragon well," or " the well of the dragon," JSTeliem. ii, 13, compare 2 Chron. xxxii, 30. Gesenius tells us that the word Gihon (though used as a proper name in Hebrew), means only " a stream, river, so called as breaking forth from fountains, compare Job. xl, 23. Its corresponding term (he adds), is used by the Arabs before the names of several larger Asiatic streams, as the Ganges, the Araxes, <fcc," possibly much in the same sense as we say the river Thames, &c., for the Hebrew root of Gilion is " Geah," to break forth, with reference to the gushing up of a fountain, the birth of a child, or the springing up of men from an ambush. The idea, therefore, has (in this form at least) no connection witli that of the word " dragon" given to it when spoken of as the well or " fountain of the dragon" (ain-tanin), Nehem. ii, 13, possibly as a fountain of very great length.

But both Lee and Gesenius give another word, having the like radical letters, but differing in its vowels, as from a different root of Chaldee and Syriac origin, viz., the word used for the belly of the serpent in Gen. iii, 14, and of any reptile in Lev. xi, 42. This word, Lee adds, occurs nowhere else in Scripture. It is spelt " Gabon." Whether, through any mispronunciation of the word " Gihon," the pool ever popularly received the name of Gahon first, and thence of " ain tanin" (i.e., dragon fountain), or from what other cause, it is now impossible to say.

But the " dragon well" of Nehem. ii, 13, opposite the valley gate, could not be the Siloali of Nehem. iii, 15, for that was by the King's garden, and considerably to the east of the Dung Gate, v. 13.

Hence, though the lower Gilion might be the Siloali of John ix, and was the place to which David sent Solomon to be proclaimed king, 1 Kings i, 32-38, the Siloah near " en Bogel" is the reference of Nehem. iii, Id, and the place where Adonijah assembled and feasted his friends when aspiring to supplant Solomon as the promised successor of David in the kingdom.

This applicability of the term Siloah or sent, John v, 9, to the fountain called Gihon (as different words having a like signification, in the judgment of Dr S. Lee), affords scope for representing the pool of Siloam, John ix, 7, as the same with the Betliesda of John v, 2, unless determinable otherwise from other considerations.

There is another pretty imagery connected with the Jewish names for their cisterns as for their fountains of water. The word for " pool" is of kindred origin with the word blessing, representing the running stream as sent upon a fertilizing mission. So the word used for fountain means also the eye; and these words have a kindred signification figuratively in the typical language of Jewish prophecy. Compare Matt, vi, 22, 23; Bev. viii, 10-11, with Isaiah viii, 6.

The five porches, John v, 2, near the pool of Bethesda (Beth-Hesda, the house of kindness), might perhaps have reference to the arches of the aqueduct* by which the waters of Solomon's pools were conveyed from Etam, in the neighbourhood of " En-gedi" (the fountain of the kid), to the Temple. For those arches were a little above the lower pool at the point where the waters of Solomon's pools turned from their western circuit towards the north to take a south-eastern course along the brow of Mount Zion to the Temple.

The destined terminus of the water from Solomon's pools was the Sanctuary, and its lavers. The largest of these was the " molten sea" of 2 Chron. iv, 2, appropriated for a typical purification of the priests personally. May not the meaning then be, when God shall be worshipped spiritually and truthfully at Jerusalem, John iv, 21-27; the Lord's house of the New Jerusalem shall be cc built unto the Lord," 31-38, by gifts of the Holy Ghost sanctifying the hearts of his people (v. 33, 34, with Heb. viii, 11). by an everlasting purification unto eternal life. But in those clays there should be " no more sea," Rev. xxi, 1, viz., no more " molten sea;" its dead waters, of a mere typical and ceremonial purification, having been sanctified, and their typical meaning spiritually realised in Christ, though not with the fulness of the effect predicted to Jew and Gentile equally until after the cessation of the oblation and sacrifice with the desolation of the typical sanctuary.

This is in harmony with my previous interpretation of the words " no more sea," by reference to the mystic waters of many people and nations, whereby the Assyrian was made great, Ezek. xxxi, 4, even as the mystic Assyrian of the Jewish Antichrist at Jerusalem in the Apostolic age. For Rev. xviii, 24 is to lie illustrated by Matt, xxiii, 3.5, compared with Isaiah xiv, 29-32, and the " generation of vipers," Matt, iii, 7.

It may here, however, be urged in objection that the Dead Sea of Ezekiel's vision, and the waters of life abounding with fish, were the waters of the Jordan from the Sea of Galilee or Lake Tiberias. True, but this only traces the imagery of the prophetic instruction from a twofold source; and probably the instruction itself is one of a twofold spiritual significance.

For Ezek xlvii, 11, speaks of " miry places," and places given to salt, which could not be healed. Jeremiah said the same, lii, 9, and our Lord confirmed his words, Matt, xxiii, 34-39, and John v, 40.

* See Plan of Ancient Jerusalem.

The waters wherewith the " molten sea" in the Temple was supplied, coming from the neighbourhood of Engedi and the Dead Sea, for the purpose of a mere typical and ceremonial purification of the Jewish priesthood, are thus assimilated to the waters of tho Jordan continuously flowing into the Dead Sea without any alteration in the character thereof. Thus, the molten sea in the Temple stood in the same prophetic relation to the pure stream from Solomon's pools as the waters of the Sea of Sodom to those of the Jordan.

But spiritual healing was provided in Christ for the Dead Sea of a mere ceremonial purification for sin, Isaiah 1, 10-20; Zech. xiv, 21; Matt, xi, 28-30, whilst the Sea of Sodom is an everlasting type of the earth as condemned for the sins of man originally, Gen. iii, 17, and as ever liable to recurring desolations from the same cause, 1 Cor. xi, 3; Rev. xi, 5, 6.

One thing is certain from the actual measurements of both Maundrell and Robinson, viz., that the 500 reeds, or 2000 yards of Ezek. xlii, 20, must have been intended to represent a measurement only of typical significance. For no one side of the Temple area could, from the nature of the ground, on historic testimony, extend literally to a length of 2000 yards.

Possibly the measurement typified an instruction of spiritual significance like that of Jerem. xxxi, 34, meaning that in those days the teaching of God's spirit should be diffused over the hearts of the faithful throughout the whole city, through the influence of the Holy Ghost, on hearts first sanctified within the sacred enclosure of the Court of the Priests; and thence carrying forth the Gospel tidings of peace as a Gospel of power and comfort to all the people of the city, and to every nation upon earth.

On the scale of the topographical map published by the Christian Knowledge Society (from which my sketch has been reduced) take 2000 feet, equal to 1000 cubits of 24 inches each, and with a pair of compasses thus set, make the Fish Gate of Zeph. i, 1 0, or the Yaffa Gate, your starting point, you will then find that the Zion of Nehemiah's day would represent pretty nearly a square of 1000 such cubits, omitting with the typical sanctuary the two outlying towers, viz., the site of that to the north, and of that on Ophel to the south. Compare also with this fact the measurement actually made by Dr Robinson on the spot. In vol. i, p. 459, he says, " The length of this wall, between Hippicus and the Tem-

pie, as near as we could estimate by paces, must have been 630 yards." But 1000 great cubits (estimated at 24 inches each) are 666§ yards. Comparing this result with the number mystically given in Rev. xiii, 18, three such measurements might be taken to symbolize the effects of the three last woes predicted over the typical sanctuary. For three times 666§ yards are 2000 yards, and the 500 reeds of Ezek. xlii, 20, estimating each reed as 6 cubits of 24 inches each, or 4 yards. This I now prefer to my previous computation of the great cubit, as only 18 inches increased by 3, instead of 21 inches increased by 3, or 24, on Lee's estimate of the ordinary cubit at 21 inches.—See my observations on the measurement of the lavers in the Tract " Thy Kingdom come," and the relative force of both computations arithmetically applied to Eze-kiel's typical division of the land, partly as an oblation to God, and partly as a dwelling for his people in Messiah's day, towards the closing remarks of this Introduction- Bear in mind also that the interval between Ezekiel's vision of the coming judgment, chap, viii, in b.c. 594 and a.d. 73, the end of the Jewish war, Dan. ix, 27, was exactly a term of 6G6 years; and about 3 times 666 years from b c. 1923, Gen. xi, 31. That was the date at which Terah, with Abraham, his son, left Ur of the Chaldees to go into the land of Canaan ; and the calling of Abraham out of Babylon stands prophetically identified with the calling of Abraham and his seed in Christ, John viii, 56. See close of Third Tract.

The obvious exclusion of the Temple area from the typical and prophetic measurements thus estimated is a matter of momentous consideration. For it as obviously confirms the interpretation I have long since given, Rev. xi, 1, 2, from other Scriptural evidence, viz., that the typical sanctuary of the Jews at Jerusalem, and from the days of Christ's earthly ministry therein, stood and stands everlastingly to God's new Sanctuary of Man's fleshly tabernacle (built and sanctified of God for the indwelling of His spirit therein, by the gift of the Holy Ghost) in that typical relation which its own outer Court or Court of the Gentiles did to the two inner Courts, viz., that of Israel, and that of the Priests. In fact, that the desolation of the typical sanctuary predicted in Dan. ix, 24-27 ; xii, 7, 11, 12, is the event figuratively described in Rev. xi, 1, 2, compared with Luke xxi, 24; Matt.'xxiv, 13, 16.

We have the highest possible confirmation of this in our Lord's words, Matt, xxiii, 38, 39 ; John iv, 21-27.

Bearing these scriptural data in remembrance, it cannot be fanciful to interpret the words of Jcrem. xxxi, 38, " From the hill Garcb to Goathas from the hill of the leper to the place of sacrifice—meaning from Mount Zion to the temple on Mount Moriah. This application of the measurements (for the healing of lepers, physically and morally, was one great characteristic of Messiah's day), may possibly involve a reference to the leprosy wherewith Uzziah was smitten for disobedience to the divine will.

There is also to this day a place on the hill of Zion, either appointed by man for a separate habitation of the leprous, or made so voluntarily under association of like sympathies.—See Robinson, v. 1, p. 359. iC Within the Zion Gate, a little towards the right, are some miserable hovels, inhabited by persons called leprous. Whether their disease is or is not the leprosy of Scripture I am unable to affirm ; the symptoms described to us were similar to those of elephantiasis. At any rate, they are pitiable objects, and miserable outcasts from society. They all live here together, and intermarry only with each other. The children are said to be healthy until the age of puberty or later, when the disease makes its appearance in a finger, on the nose, or in some part of the body, and gradually increases so long as the victim survives. They were said often to live to the age of forty or fifty years." Compare the language of the Jebusites to David, 2 Sam. v, G-9, intimating that it would be undesirable for him to take the evil with the good, as he must do for the possession of Mount Zion.

Dr Thompson, in " The Land and the Book," vol. ii, p. 530, has made the vision of Ezek. xlvii, 1-12, the subject of a very beautiful and scripturally sound allegory, shewing the relation of the typical waters in that vision to the predicted outpouring of the Holy Ghost in the latter days of the typical dispensation.

Hie Typical Instruction of EzekieVs Prophetic Visions respecting the Oblation and Temple to be restored at Jerusalem after the Babylonian Captivity.

Herein the Christian church possesses a continuous instruction from Jewish prophecies fulfilled in the history of Israel's restored nationality at Jerusalem, from the days of Cyrus until (on the disannulling of God's first covenant with Israel, and its law of typical sacrifices), the foundations of the kingdom were spiritually enlarged in Christ under a new and everlasting covenant confirmed of God by the gift of the Holy Ghost upon all flesh for the salvation of all, at least all who would thus be drawn nigh unto him, in the day of his final judgment on the temporal kingdom of Judah's exclusive privileges.

The general proof of this may be briefly stated thus. Comparing Jerern. xxvii, 4-12, and xxix, 10-15, with Ezek. xii, 28, saj-ing, with reference both to the consummation of the predicted captivity and the time fore-ordained of God for the restoration of the kingdom to Israel, " Thus saith the Lord God; There shall none of my words be prolonged any more, but the word which I have spoken shall be done, saith the Lord God."

The popular error, which, setting aside the above scriptural evidence of fulfilled prophecy, declares that the predicted restoration of the kingdom to Israel is a prophecy even yet unfulfilled, has overlooked the fact that these prophecies were all given in language expressly contemplating both a temporal and spiritual restoration of the kingdom.

Also that these two forms of the restoration, though designed of God to be combined as one in Christ at Jerusalem (Matt, xxiii, 37-39), aud always so combined, " by a way of holiness," on the part of some in Israel, should fail, by reason of Jewish prejudices and opposition, to be thus realised in the predicted form of a kingdom iuto which the Gentiles also were to be gathered in by Messiah, until consummated by God's final judgment on the temporal kingdom of exclusively Jewish privileges.

The rebuilding of Jerusalem and resto- The rebuilding of Jerusalem " to the ration of the Kingdom, as designed Lord" (Jerem. xxxi, 38-40 ; Ps. and executed by man. exxvii, 1), in a form which should

" not be plucked up nor throivn down any more for ever"

Tins was to be overthrown with the Thus when the rebuilding was corn-overthrow of the typical sanctuary (Dan. menced by Zerubbabel, Haggai (see ix, 24-27), at the disannulling of God's especially h, 12-20), and Zechariah (corn-first covenant with Israel, to establish a pare ii, 7 ; v, 5-11 ; and xiii, 7, to end new covenant of " everlasting righteous- of xiv), were both instructed to predict ness" in the quickening spirit of Messiah's the failure of man's labours therein, and resurrection glory. That, however, was of security for the pride of his worldly to be manifested in the power of an ever- expectations therefrom, until the city lasting judgment on the generation by and kingdom should be restored to Israel whom he should be despised and rejected on the basis of a spiritual and truthful in the days of his earthly ministration. worship of God, uniting the righteous

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