Lvlix

1. A. "And Abraham lifted up his eyes and looked, and behold, behind him was a ram, [caught in a thicket by his horns. And Abraham went and took the ram and offered it up as a burnt offering instead of his son]" (Gen. 22:13):

B. What is the meaning of the word for "behind"?

C. Said R. Yudan, " 'Behind' in the sense of 'after,' that is, after all that happens, Israel nonetheless will be embroiled in transgressions and perplexed by sorrows. But in the end, they will be redeemed by the horns of a ram: 'And the Lord will blow the horn' (Zech. 9:14)."

D. Said R. Judah bar Simon, " 'After' all generations Israel nonetheless will be embroiled in transgressions and perplexed by sorrows. But in the end, they will be redeemed by the horns of a ram: 'And the Lord God will blow the horn' (Zech. 9:14)."

E. Said R. Hinena bar Isaac, "All through the days of the year Israelites are embroiled in transgressions and perplexed by sorrows. But on the New Year they take the ram's horn and sound it, so in the end, they will be redeemed by the horns of a ram: 'And the Lord God will blow the horn' (Zech. 9:14)."

F. R. Abba bar R. Pappi, R. Joshua of Siknin in the name of R. Levi: "Since our father, Abraham, saw the ram get himself out of one thicket only to be trapped in another, the Holy One, blessed be he, said to him, 'So your descendants will be entangled in one kingdom after another, struggling from Babylonia to Media, from Media to Greece, from Greece to Edom. But in the end, they will be redeemed by the horns of a ram: 'And the Lord God will blow the horn ... the Lord of Hosts will defend them' (Zech. 9:14-5)."

2. A. "... And Abraham went and took the ram and offered it up as a burnt offering instead of his son:" (Gen. 22:13):

B. R. Yudan in the name of R. Benaiah: "He said before him, 'Lord of all ages, regard the blood of this ram as though it were the blood of Isaac, my son, its innards as though they were the innards of Isaac my son.'"

C. That [explanation of the word "instead"] accords with what we have learned in the Mishnah: "Lo, this is instead of that, this is in exchange for that, this is in place of that"—lo, such is an act of exchanging [one beast for another in the sacrificial rite, and both beasts then are held to be sanctified] [M. Tem. 5:5].

D. R. Phineas in the name of R. Benaiah: "He said before him, 'Lord of all ages, regard it as though I had offered up my son, Isaac, first, and afterward had offered up the ram in his place.'"

E. That [sense of the word "instead"] is in line with this verse: "And Jothan his son reigned in his stead" (2 Kgs. 15:7).

F. That accords with what we have learned in the Mishnah: [If one says, "I vow a sacrifice] like the lamb," or "like the animals of the Temple stalls" [it is a valid vow] [M. Ned. 1:3].

G. R. Yohanan said, "That is in the sense of 'like the lamb of the daily whole offering.'" [One who made such a statement has vowed to bring a lamb.]

H. R. Simeon b. Laqish said, "... 'like the ram of Abraham, our father.'" [One who has made such a statement has vowed to bring a ram.]

I. There they say, ". . . 'like the offspring of a sin-offering.'"

J. Bar Qappara taught on Tannaite authority, ". . . 'like a lamb which has never given suck' [thus, a ram]."

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