Xcviiixiv

I hope for your salvation, O Lord (Gen. 49 18) B. Said R. Isaac, All things depend on hope, suffering depends on hope, the sanctification of God's name depends on hope, the merit attained by the fathers depends on hope, the lust for the age to come depends on hope. C. That is in line with this verse 'Yes, in the way of your judgments, O Lord, we have hoped for you, to your name, and to your memorial, is the desire of our soul' (Is. 26 8). 'The way of your judgments refers to suffering. D. '....

Lxxvi

A. so that I come again to my father's house in peace, then the Lord shall be my God (Gen. 28 20-22) B. R. Joshua of Sikhnin in the name of R. Levi The Holy One, blessed be he, took the language used by the patriarchs and turned it into a key to the redemption of their descendants. C. Said the Holy One, blesesd be he, to Jacob, 'You have said, Then the Lord shall be my God. By your life, all of the acts of goodness, blessing, and consolation which I am going to carry out for your descendants I...

Demonstration Nineteen Against the Jews on account of their saying that they are destined to be gathered together

The voice of the Holy One was heard by Moses. He sent him to take his people out of Egypt, out of the house of Pharaoh, the bondage of the Egyptians, saying to him, Say to Pharaoh My son, my first-born in Israel. I say to you Send out my son to worship me (Ex. 4 22-3). When he took them forth from Egypt with signs and wonders, with a mighty hand, with a high arm, and with great visions, he brought them through the wilderness and led them there forty years. He led them to the...

Y Taanit 11IX

Levi, If Israel would keep a single Sabbath in the proper way, forthwith the son of David would come. Y. What is the Scriptural basis for this view 'Moses said, Eat it today, for today is a sabbath to the Lord today you will not find it in the field' (Ex. 16 25). Z. And it says, For thus said the Lord God, the Holy One of Israel, 'In returning and rest you shall be saved in quietness and in trust shall be your strength. And you would not' (Is. 30 15). Here, in a single saying, we...

Chrysostom Jewish Unbelief Christian Wavering

John of the golden tongue, Chrysostom, takes pride of place in the confrontation between Judaism, as represented in sages' documents, and Christianity, as represented by substantial theologians, because he addressed the issues head-on. His principal point was that Christians cannot believe in Christ and also worship in synagogues and observe Judaic rites. Judaism is over, offering no salvation, as the fiasco of the rebuilding of the Temple had just proved. In stressing these two points,...

Y Yoma 32111

Hiyya the Elder and R. Simeon b. Halapta were walking in the valley of Arabel at daybreak. They saw that the light of the morning star was breaking forth. Said R. Hiyya the Elder to R. Simeon b. Halapta, Son of my master, this is what the redemption of Israel is like at first, little by little, but in the end it will go along and burst into light. B. What is the Scriptural basis for this view 'Rejoice not over me, O my enemy when I fall, I shall rise when I sit in darkness, the...

Y Avodah Zarah

IV E Saturnalia means hidden hatred sina'ah temunah The Lord hates, takes vengeance, and punishes. F This is in accord with the following verse Now Esau hated Jacob Gen. 27 41 . G R. Isaac b. R. Eleazar said, In Rome they call it Esau's Saturnalia. H Kratesis It is on the day on which the Romans seized power. K Said R. Levi, It is the day on which Solomon intermarried with the family of Pharaoh Neccho, King of Egypt. On that day Michael came down and thrust a reed into the sea, and pulled up...

The Messianic Crisis

Every page of Eusebius's writing bears the message that the conversion of Constantine proves the Christhood of Jesus his messianic standing. History the affairs of nations and monarchs yields laws of society, proves God's will, so that matters now speak for themselves. For Judaism the dramatic shift in the fortunes of the competing biblical faith raised a simple and unpleasant possibility perhaps Israel had been wrong after all. Since the Jews as a whole, and sages among them, anticipated the...

Xxxviiv

But now thus says the Lord, he who created you is Jacob, and he who formed you is Israel (Is. 43 1). B. R. Phineas in the name of R. Reuben said, Said the Holy One, blessed be he, to his world, 'O my world, my world Shall I tell you who created you, Israel is the one who formed you,' as it is written, 'He who created you is Jacob, and he who formed you is Israel' (Is. 43 1). D. R. Joshua b. Nehemiah in the name of R. Haninah bar Isaac The heaven and the earth were created only on account of...

Tosefta Shabbat 135

The books of the Evangelists and the books of the minim they do not save from a fire on the Sabbath , They are allowed to burn up where they are, they and even the references to the Divine Name that are in them. . . . B. Said R. Tarfon, May I bury my sons if such things come into my hands and I do not burn them, and even the references to the Divine Name which are in them. And if someone was running after me, I should escape into a temple of idolatry, but I should not go into their houses of...

Epilogue The Shape of the Initial Encounter and the Enduring Confrontation

Sages' Success in the Initial Encounter Judaism endured in the West for two reasons. First, Christianity permitted it to endure, and, second, Israel, the Jewish people, wanted it to. The fate of paganism in the fourth century shows the importance of the first of the two factors Geffcken 1978, 115-222 . We see, in particular, that it was not the intellectual power of sages alone that secured the long-term triumph of Judaism. It also was the character of the Christian emperors' policy toward...

Leviticus Rabbah and Israels National Crisis

Israel remains Israel, the Jewish people, after the flesh, because Israel today continues the family begun by Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Joseph, and the other tribal founders, and bears the heritage bequeathed by them. That conviction they were Israel never required articulation. The contrary possibility fell wholly outside of sages' and all Jews' imagination. To state matters negatively, the people could no more conceive that they were not the daughters and sons of their fathers and mothers than...

Eusebius and the Beginnings of Christian Historiography

If Eusebius lived today in an American university, he would occupy professorships in departments of political science, sociology, history, religious and theological studies, and, of course, classics. But I think his particular department would be political science. For Eusebius, though the founder of Christian historiography, confronted an essentially political problem and organized his thought in response to it. He turned to history for the same reason that people today study history to...

The Jews in the Land of Israel in the Fourth Century

The crisis of the age and there assuredly was a crisis for Jews began in politics but extended to matters of the mind psychology, theology, and myth gone wrong, most of all. For what happened was something that Jews did not anticipate, the rise to power of the Christian faith, seen by Jews until then as a mere aberration and a heresy. What Jews did anticipate was never to come to pass in the enormous shift of history and politics, the opportunity to rebuild the Temple came and went. These two...

Aphrahat and the People Which Is No People

To see how a fourth-century Christian theologian addressed the question of who is Israel in the light of the salvation of Jesus Christ, we turn to Aphrahat, a Christian monk in the western satrapy of the Iranian empire we know as Mesopotamia, ca. 300-350, who wrote, in Syriac, a sustained treatise on the relationship of Christianity and Judaism. His demonstrations, written in 337-44, take up issues facing the Syriac-speaking Church in the Iranian empire, enemy of Christian Rome. The relevance...