Chrysostom Jewish Unbelief Christian Wavering

John of the golden tongue, Chrysostom, takes pride of place in the confrontation between Judaism, as represented in sages' documents, and Christianity, as represented by substantial theologians, because he addressed the issues head-on. His principal point was that Christians cannot believe in Christ and also worship in synagogues and observe Judaic rites. Judaism is over, offering no salvation, as the fiasco of the rebuilding of the Temple had just proved. In stressing these two points,...

Y Yoma 32111

Hiyya the Elder and R. Simeon b. Halapta were walking in the valley of Arabel at daybreak. They saw that the light of the morning star was breaking forth. Said R. Hiyya the Elder to R. Simeon b. Halapta, Son of my master, this is what the redemption of Israel is like at first, little by little, but in the end it will go along and burst into light. B. What is the Scriptural basis for this view 'Rejoice not over me, O my enemy when I fall, I shall rise when I sit in darkness, the...

Y Avodah Zarah

IV E Saturnalia means hidden hatred sina'ah temunah The Lord hates, takes vengeance, and punishes. F This is in accord with the following verse Now Esau hated Jacob Gen. 27 41 . G R. Isaac b. R. Eleazar said, In Rome they call it Esau's Saturnalia. H Kratesis It is on the day on which the Romans seized power. K Said R. Levi, It is the day on which Solomon intermarried with the family of Pharaoh Neccho, King of Egypt. On that day Michael came down and thrust a reed into the sea, and pulled up...

The Messianic Crisis

Every page of Eusebius's writing bears the message that the conversion of Constantine proves the Christhood of Jesus his messianic standing. History the affairs of nations and monarchs yields laws of society, proves God's will, so that matters now speak for themselves. For Judaism the dramatic shift in the fortunes of the competing biblical faith raised a simple and unpleasant possibility perhaps Israel had been wrong after all. Since the Jews as a whole, and sages among them, anticipated the...

Xxxviiv

But now thus says the Lord, he who created you is Jacob, and he who formed you is Israel (Is. 43 1). B. R. Phineas in the name of R. Reuben said, Said the Holy One, blessed be he, to his world, 'O my world, my world Shall I tell you who created you, Israel is the one who formed you,' as it is written, 'He who created you is Jacob, and he who formed you is Israel' (Is. 43 1). D. R. Joshua b. Nehemiah in the name of R. Haninah bar Isaac The heaven and the earth were created only on account of...

Lviii

He said, Isaac, my son, do you see what I see B. He said to him, Yes. C. He said to the two lads, Do you see what I see D. They said to him, No. E. He said, Since you do not see, 'Stay here with the ass' (Gen. 22 5), for you are like an ass. F. On the basis of this passage we learn that slaves are in the category of asses. G. Rabbis derive proof from the matter of the giving of the Torah Six days you shall labor and do all your work, you . . . your daughter, your man-servant, your...

Leviticus Rabbah Parashah Two HI

Speak to the children of Israel and say to them, when any man of you brings an offering to the Lord, you shall bring your offering of cattle from the herd or from the flock (Lev. 1 2). B. Is Ephraim a precious son to me Is he a child that is dandled For as often as I speak of him, I still keep mentioning him (Jer. 31 20). C. Ten were called precious, and these are they Torah, prophecy, understanding, knowledge, folly, riches, the righteous, the death of the faithful, faithfulness, and...

Tosefta Shabbat 135

The books of the Evangelists and the books of the minim they do not save from a fire on the Sabbath , They are allowed to burn up where they are, they and even the references to the Divine Name that are in them. . . . B. Said R. Tarfon, May I bury my sons if such things come into my hands and I do not burn them, and even the references to the Divine Name which are in them. And if someone was running after me, I should escape into a temple of idolatry, but I should not go into their houses of...

Epilogue The Shape of the Initial Encounter and the Enduring Confrontation

Sages' Success in the Initial Encounter Judaism endured in the West for two reasons. First, Christianity permitted it to endure, and, second, Israel, the Jewish people, wanted it to. The fate of paganism in the fourth century shows the importance of the first of the two factors Geffcken 1978, 115-222 . We see, in particular, that it was not the intellectual power of sages alone that secured the long-term triumph of Judaism. It also was the character of the Christian emperors' policy toward...

Leviticus Rabbah and Israels National Crisis

Israel remains Israel, the Jewish people, after the flesh, because Israel today continues the family begun by Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Joseph, and the other tribal founders, and bears the heritage bequeathed by them. That conviction they were Israel never required articulation. The contrary possibility fell wholly outside of sages' and all Jews' imagination. To state matters negatively, the people could no more conceive that they were not the daughters and sons of their fathers and mothers than...

Eusebius and the Beginnings of Christian Historiography

If Eusebius lived today in an American university, he would occupy professorships in departments of political science, sociology, history, religious and theological studies, and, of course, classics. But I think his particular department would be political science. For Eusebius, though the founder of Christian historiography, confronted an essentially political problem and organized his thought in response to it. He turned to history for the same reason that people today study history to...

The Jews in the Land of Israel in the Fourth Century

The crisis of the age and there assuredly was a crisis for Jews began in politics but extended to matters of the mind psychology, theology, and myth gone wrong, most of all. For what happened was something that Jews did not anticipate, the rise to power of the Christian faith, seen by Jews until then as a mere aberration and a heresy. What Jews did anticipate was never to come to pass in the enormous shift of history and politics, the opportunity to rebuild the Temple came and went. These two...

Aphrahat and the People Which Is No People

To see how a fourth-century Christian theologian addressed the question of who is Israel in the light of the salvation of Jesus Christ, we turn to Aphrahat, a Christian monk in the western satrapy of the Iranian empire we know as Mesopotamia, ca. 300-350, who wrote, in Syriac, a sustained treatise on the relationship of Christianity and Judaism. His demonstrations, written in 337-44, take up issues facing the Syriac-speaking Church in the Iranian empire, enemy of Christian Rome. The relevance...