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Matt. 7.24-27

Luke 6.47-49

24 Everyone then who hears these words and acts on them will be like a wise man who built his house on rock.

25 Torrential rain fell, the floods came, and the winds blew and beat on that but it did not fall, because it had been founded on rock.

26 And everyone who hears these words of mine and does not act on them will be like a foolish man who built his house on sand.

27 Torrential rain fell, and the floods came, and the winds blew and beat against that house, and it fell — and great was its fall!

47 Everyone who comes to me and hears words and acts on them, I will show you what he is like. 48 He is like a man building a who dug deeply and laid the foundation on rock;

when a flood arose, the river burst against that house but could not shake it, because it had been well built. 49 But he who hears and does not act is like a man building a house on the ground without a foundation. When the flood burst against it, immediately it fell, and great was the ruin of that house.

In each case two features are evident: the teaching is the same in substance; the main emphases are carried by key words or phrases (salt, lost its taste, thrown out; accuser, [danger of being] thrown in prison, 'I you, you will never get out until you have paid back the last cheek, other, cloak/tunic also, 'Give to him who asks ;250 treasure in heaven [invulnerable to] moth or thief, 'where your treasure is there also will your heart 'Enter through the narrow [gate]'; hearing and acting, house built on rock, flood, house built on poor foundation, fall); otherwise the detail is quite diverse. It is hard to imagine such sayings being simply copied from the same document. The alternative suggestion that there were several editions of Q (Matthew copying from one,

249. Did. 1,5 makes use of this last saying: 'he will not get out from there, until he has paid back the last penny'.

250. Did. 1.4-5 may well reflect knowledge of Matthew's version. In the Gospel of Thomas the saying has been formulated with a slightly different thrust: 'If you have money, do not lend it at interest, but give it to someone from whom you will not get it back' 95).

251. See further below chapter 13 n. 158.

252. I have left Matt. 5.43-48/Luke 6.27-28, 32-36 till §14.5 below.

253. The difficulty of reconstructing Q in these cases is evident in Robinson/Hoffmann/ Kloppenborg's Critical Edition. E.g., in what Kloppenborg regards as the first cluster in his Q1 (Q 6.20-23b, 27-49), 6.27-35 is all like 6.29-30, illustrated above. However, it is less likely that the considerable variations are the result of editing a document (Q). The more obvious explanation is that Matthew knew different versions and that he was free to present the overlap material (q) in the spirit of the free-er oral retelling. Similarly with Q 6.36, 43-44, 46. On the Q hypothesis, it is Matthew who has broken up and scattered Q 6.37-40 (Matt. 7.1-2; 15.14; 10.24-25).

Luke from another) smacks of desperation, since the suggestion undermines the arguments for the existence of a Q document in the first place. Similarly with the suggestion that Matthew was free in his editing of Q (= Luke) or vice-versa. Here once again the literary paradigm will simply not serve. These are all teachings remembered as teachings of Jesus in the way that oral tradition preserves such teaching: the character and emphasis of the saying is retained through stable words and phrases, while the point is elaborated in ways the reteller judged appropriate to the occasion.

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