184. See, e.g., E. Bickermann, 'Das leere Grab' (1924), in P. Hoffmann, ed., Zur neutestamentlichen Überlieferung von der Auferstehung Jesu (Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 1988) 271-84; Fuller, Formation 57; others in my Jesus and the Spirit 391 n. 113. Schillebeeckx sees the motif particularly in Luke's reuse of the Markan narrative (Jesus 340-44). See also Strecker, Theology 272-73.

185. Possibly implied already in 1 John 5.6-8, and probably in Gos. Pet. 5.19.

186. The difference in conceptualization between rapture and exaltation is not great.

187. Some textual witnesses add 'a sort of waking vision' (hypar ti).

188. See also Müller, Entstehung 62-63.

This latter would have been the most obvious category for those who saw Jesus 'alive from the dead' to use as they attempted to articulate or make sense of (it amounts to the same thing) what they saw. The precedents were there. And indeed we do find various expressions of Christian belief to the effect that God vindicated or exalted Jesus directly from death.189 But more typically the thought of exaltation is combined with (rather than understood as an alternative to) the predominant category of resurrection.190 To be sure, it can be argued that the memory of Jesus himself predicting vindication for 'the Son of Man' in terms of resurrection (§ 17.6b) could have been stimulus enough to the disciples to see visions of the vindicated Jesus as resurrected Son of But the thesis stum bles on the absence of any reference to Jesus as the Son of Man in the accounts of

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