32 The people of Nineveh will rise hd at the

judgment with this generation and condemn it. because they repented at the proclamation of

Jonah, and see, something greater than Jonah is


That these sayings belong to Q is clear enough from the degree of agreement, the second especially.284 The note of fulfilled expectation could hardly be clearer. What was it that prophets and others longed for, if not the age to come, the age of restoration and salvation?285 The claim is that in Jesus' mission that expectation has been fulfilled (Q 10.23-24): the blessings of the age to come are already evident.286 Similarly with Q 11.31-32.287 The episode in which the queen of the south expressed her wonder at Solomon's wisdom and success was the stuff of

284. Recognition of the dynamics of oral tradition renders the concern to strip away redaction less important (as in Meier, Marginal Jew 2.488-90 n. 166).

285. Jeremias, Proclamation 107-108; Jesus 'is the only Jew of ancient times known to us who preached not only that people were on the threshold of the end of time, but that the new age of salvation had already begun' (Flusser, Jesus 110). Comparison is regularly made with Pss. Sol. 17.44 (e.g., Manson, Sayings 80; Kümmel, Promise 112) and Pss. Sol. 18.6 (Beasley-Murray, Jesus and the Kingdom 84-85; Theissen and Merz, Historical Jesus 257); Lüdemann adds 1 En. 58.2-6 (Jesus 331).

286. Typical of the Jesus Seminar's undue scepticism is the judgment of the majority that 'the saying could have been uttered by almost any (Christian) sage' and therefore cannot be attributed to Jesus; it 'could be taken to express the sectarian arrogance of early Christian leaders' (Funk, Five Gospels 193, 322). No concern is evident here to limit the insertion of material into the Jesus tradition to prophetic utterances understood as sayings of (the risen) Jesus — a possibility considered unlikely in this case by Boring, Sayings 152 ('the features of Christian prophecy manifest in it [Q 10.23-24] were also characteristic of Jesus' own speech'). Lüdemann also regards Q 10.23-24 as 'probably authentic', since no community situation is visible (Jesus 331).

287. Already discussed above (see nn. 177, 204).

legend (1 Kgs. 10.1-10), but in Jesus' ministry there was something greater! Jonah was famous for the success of his preaching in Nineveh (Jonah 3.5), but in Jesus' ministry something greater was happening! The implication is that the Galileans' failure to follow the lead given by the queen and the Ninevites made them the more culpable. We today may recoil at such a high self-esteem attributed to Jesus' mission. But it would be unwise to discount the tradition's testimony to Jesus' own remembered evaluation of his mission on that account alone.

The similar note of a markedly changed situation, of something new, which decisively relativizes previous or normal practice is also struck in another small collection of parabolic sayings preserved in Mark 2.18-22 pars.

Matt. 9.14-15

Mark 2.18-20

Luke 5.33-35

14 Then the disciples of lohn

Now the disciples of John

33 Then they said to him, 'The disciples of John frequently fast and pray, like those of the but yours eat and 34 Jesus said to them, 'You cannot make wedding guests fast while the bridegroom is with them.

came to him, saying, do we and the

Pharisees fast (often), but vour disciples do not fast?' 15 And he said to them, 'The wedding

and the Pharisees were fasting; and people came and said to him, "Why do the disciples of John and the disciples of the Pharisees fast. but vour disciples do not 19 And he said to them, 'The wedding

guests cannot mourn as lone as the bridegroom is with

guests cannot fast while the bridegroom is with them.

can thev?

The days will come when the bridegroom is taken from them, and

can they? As long as they have the bridegroom with them, they cannot fast. 20 The days will come when the bridegroom is taken from and

can you?

35 The days will come when the bridegroom is taken awav from them,

they will fast'.

then will fast on that day'.

then thev will fast in those

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