Index of Subjects

Abba, 548-50, 717 Akiba, 751 Amen, 700-701 Analogy, 105-7 Antitheses, 579-80 Apocalyptic, 401, 478 flight from, 61, 736 Apocalyptic writings, 274 Apocryphon of James, 168-69 Apostolic tradition, 180-81, 224 Archaeological data, 269, 289, 295, 297, 299, 301, 303, 330,471,834-35

Baptize as metaphor, 367-68, 802-3, 808-9.

See also John the Baptist, preaching Barabbas, 775 Bartimaeus, 643, 649 Beatitudes, 412-14

Bethsaida, 309, 317, 317n.305, 320n.329, 559, 593, 681n.306

Caesarea Philippi, 322-24 Caiaphas, 630-34, 638nn.ll7,118, 649, 65152

Cana, 321

Capernaum, 317-19, 321-22, 520, 559, 593-94 Chorazin,

Christ of faith, 49-51, 58, 72-73, 77, 127 Christology from below, 31 Church, 513-14, 610 Circumcision, 188, 292-93 Contradictions, 30-31 Covenant, 282-83, 285, 291 covenantal nomism, 292

covenant renewal, 394, 506-7, 512 new covenant, 512-13, 516, 816, 818, 820, 824

Criteria, 81-83, 87, 91n.l32, 97, 191-92, 331, 333-34, 423n,215, 430n.246, 467n.390, 510n.l01, 812 Critical realism, 110-11 Cross Gospel, 170

David, 667-68 Debt, 520 Deists, 29-31 Dialogue Gospel, 167-68 Disciples, 177, 224, 490, 498-507, 511, 51516, 536n.232, 540-41, §14 esp. 555-62, 605-11, 641-43, 645-46, 649, 762 beloved disciple, 833-34, 843, 845-46, 854 child as model, 549-55 sonship of, 717, 724 Divorce, 577-79, 609 Dogma, flight from, §4

Elders, 276 Election, 289-90

Elijah, 370-71, 866-67. See also John the

Baptist, as Elijah Enlightenment, 25-28, 34, 39, 69, 71, 92, 136 Eschatology, 45-49, 51, 61, 65, 398-401, 406n.l23, 418n.l91, 470, 478-84 eschatological reversal, 412-17, 545, 565, 653

eschatological tribulation, 368-69 Jewish expectation, 393-403, 413-14, 437, 487, 669

realized, 431, 444-45 Essenes, 271-72, 280, 290, 559, 603-5. See also Qumran Eunuchs, 599n.251 Exorcisms, 667-69 See also Jesus as exorcist Eye-witnesses, 177-78, 242-43

Faith, 12-13, 29-31, 38, 50-51, 65, 71-73, 106, 123, 127, 376, 500-503, 506, 551-55 centrality of, 68-70, 104-5, 126-34, 327 disciple faith, 128-30, 132-34 and history, 13, 15, 24-25, 31-32, 34, 4952, 64-65, 67-72, 77, 99-100, 111, 133, 139

in Jesus, 501-2, 761-62 of Jesus, 72, 81n,61, 502 Family, 581, 592-99, 610 Feeding 5000, 645-46 Fifth gospel, 50, 127, 255n.l Forgiveness, 358-60, 589-92, 610-11, 786-88 Form criticism, 74-77, 84, 127-28, 140 original form, 201, 249, 332, 413n,155, 422n.210,427n.240, 672, 675n.281, 800n.l91 pure form, 194, 241-42 Fundamentalism, 105, 285

Galilee, 313-23

and Roman rule, Galilean springtime, 44 Gentiles, 342n,17, 394-95, 537-40, 640n.l28 eschatological pilgrimage, 394-95, 538, 640, 792-93 Gnosticism, pre-Christian, 162-64, 167n.l36, 168-69

Father of Jesus, 549 the Father, 549n.35 fear of, 545-47 holiness of, 546-47 name of, 546-47 one God, 288-89, 296, 393 as King, 391-93, 410, 465, 544-48, 608, 792-93. See also Shema Gospel, 383-84, 436, 500 Gospel of Thomas, 59-60, 63-64, 134, 161-65, 328, 355-56, 443n.295, 467-69 de-eschatologized, 407n.l24, 413n,156, 420n,203, 421n.205, 423n.218, 424,

424n,220, 425n.229, 430, 442nn.291,292, 443, 469 Gospels as biographies, 184-86 Grand narrative, 27-28, 93, 269, 396-98, 402, 405, 470-77

Halakhah, 270n.68, 564, 567-72, 582-83, 700 Heaven, 398, 404, 425, 427, 487 Hell, 425

Hellenists, 278, 280 Hermeneutics, 13, 67, 92-97, 99-11 as dialogue, hermeneutical circle, 118-22, 123-24, 129 intended meaning, 93-97, 121-22 pre-understanding, 121-22 principles of, 19-20, 22-23, 26-29, 33, 35,

Wirkungsgeschichte, 95-96, 122-23, 128-29 Herod Agrippa, 308

Herod Antipas, 170n.l58, 293, 296, 298, 308, 310, 312, 319, 321-22, 349, 377-78, 451, 629, 647n.l57, 657, 661, 798 Herodians, 277, 321n.333, 636n,112 History, 13, 26-28, 93 flight from, 15, §5 historical awareness, 106n.22

historical consciousness, 106, 122-23 historical-critical method, 27-29, 68-70, 77-78, 92, 102-9, 124, 136n.l25, 71920, 725

historical facts, 102-3, 108-9, 331, 334 historical philology, 18-19, 112, 115, 117 historical text, 112-13, 116-18 historicism, 27-29, 109, 122-23 historiography, 101-11 Holiness, 288, 290, 546-47, 603 Hosanna,

Idols, 288-90 Implied author/reader, 94 Inheritance, 386n.l7, 395, 512 Interpretation,

Isaiah, influence of, 364, 366-67, 448-50,

494,516-17,662 Israel, 262-64, 285-87, 289-92, 297, 322-23, 722

flock of Yahweh, 511-12, 516 restoration of, 56, 85n.l00, 91, 332-33, 389, 473, 486n.485, 499n,40, 506-16, 540, 543, 605, 608, 791, 793, 817

Jerusalem, 278, 287-88, 323-24 Jesus' entry into, 765-66, 793 Jesus: aim of, 30-31, 489-90, 498, 610, 616, 639,642, §§17.3-4 anointing, 371-77 arrest of, 773 authority of, 698-704

did not baptize, 606-8 and the Baptist. See John the Baptist birth of, 340

in Bethlehem, 344-45 date of, 312 historicity of, 343-48 illegitimacy, 346-47 virgin birth, 342-43, 345-47 burial of, 781-83, 828 characteristic Jesus, 83, 332, 335, 404-6,

436-37 charismatic, 706n. 1 christological claim, 442n.289 Cynic influence on, 54-55, 62, 88n.ll3, 154, 298-300, 353n.73, 417n.l82, 520n.l48, 536n.231, 553n.50, 588n.l99, 593, 693, 698n.395 death of, 339, 628-29, 721, 777-81 date of, 312, 765 expectation of, 378, §17.4 reason for, §17.2

responsibility for, 271, 775-77, 847, 850 Jesus' understanding of, §17.5 dogma of, 51, 496, 662, 790, 802 education, eschatological plus, 706-7, 720, 762 eschatological prophet, 153n.60 eschatological self-consciousness, 696,

703-4 ethics of, 609-10 existence of, 142-43 exorcist, 455-61, 664, 670-71, 673-77, 681n.307, 690, 693-96, 698, 703, 706, 743-44, 789. See also Jesus as healer experience of, 374-77, 380, 578n.l51 family, following Jesus, 503, 506 the Galilean, 293, 330, 334 as healer, 334, 449-50, 466, 625, 664, 67783, 694-96, 706 laying on of hands, 690-91 raising dead, 449

technique, 690-92. See also Jesus as exorcist, Jesus and magic hearing Jesus, 490-98, 582 historical context, §9 historical Jesus, 48-51, 58-59, 64-65, 67, 72-73, 77-82, 84n.98, 125-27, 615, 672, 827

Holy One, 676

hope of vindication, 750-52, 757-58, 76062, 818-24, 867-68 impact of, 129-34, 239-42, 254, 327-29, 333-35, 340-42, 376, 406, 493n.l7, 557, 584-85, 608, 616-17, 645, 654, 660, 705, 718, 827, 832, 861-62, 865-66, 874-76 inner life of, 71-72, 76-77 the Jew, 5, 84-88, 102, 255, 259, 259n.20, 279-80, 293, 297-98, 315-17, 330, 339n.l

King of the Jews, 628-29, 634, 646, 651-52 and the law, 296, 563-83, 784-85 literacy, and magic, 458, 460n.366, 670-71, 689-94, 785n.ll6

as Messiah, 30, 33, 342, 373-74, §§15.2-5, esp. 626-34,644-45, 647-55, 705-6, 752 messianic pretender, 334 messianic self-consciousness, 36, 184, 616,

618, 653-54, 740n.l46 miracles of, 448-50, 642-43, 645-46, 657, 659, 667, 670-96, 670-73, 683, 688 and faith, 501, 692-93 nature miracles, 683-89 neo-Liberal Jesus, 58-65, 87-88, 134 mission of, 339n.2, 435-36 Paul's knowledge of, 142-M, 181-84,

575n.l39, 577-79, 584-87, 651n.l67 as Pharisee, 565n.99 prayer of, 694, 711-18, 723-24, 762 as prophet, 334, 657-66, 706, 797, 847 miracle-working, 668-69 symbolic actions, 664. See also Prophet prophetic self-consciousness, 662-66 rejection of, 421, 492, 496 religious experience of, 34-39, 65, 71-73 revolutionary, 622-24, 639, 646-48, 653 self-understanding, 724, 761-62, 816-17 social concern, 437 in sociological perspective, 52-57, 65, 76

Son of David, 342-43, 345, 627-28, 63335, 641-43, 647, 651-53, 668, 697, 705-6

633, 676, §16.2, 719, 723 Son of man, §16.3-6, 798-802, 806-7, 81415, 817, 819-20. See also Son of man and Spirit, 706, 743-44 spokesman for God, 706-7, 762 as teacher, 177, 224-26, 334, 491-92, 696704,706 temptations of, and tithing, 316 Torah piety of, 316-17, 581-82 transfiguration, 433, 491n.7 trial of, 628-34, 652-53, 774-77 and Wisdom, 703, 723n.75 wisdom of, 60-62 Jesus remembered, 130-32, 178-80, 182, 23945, 254, 328-29, 334-35, 490, 512, 557, 569-70, 572, 578, 582, 587, 616, 641, 67273, 674-77, 681-83, 687-88, 692, 694, 69899, 702-4, 749, 760, 762, 798, 803, 818, 843, 846, 848-51,854, 860-62 Jesus Seminar, 58-62

Jesus tradition, 6, 54-55, 74-77, 133-36, 17677, 181-84, 324, 327-36, 490 in Aramaic, 225-26

and community formation, 174-76, 238-53, 329, 436, 454, 508-10, 557, 567-68, 827, 863, 875-76 core of, 832n.24

layers of, 194-95, 248-49, 327n.2 literary paradigm, 209, 223, 227, 234, 248,

332, 336, 767-68 oral character of, 6, 43n.84, 84, 192-250, 253-54, 328-29, 333, 336, 378-79, 413n.l55, 422n.210,426n.230, 433, 440n.284, 441-42, 446-47, 469, 507-8, 527, 560, 567, 573-75, 577-78, 626, 641, 644-45, 660, 672, 674-76, 677-78, 680-81, 685-86, 699n.403, 713n.35, 714, 721-22, 766-68, 783, 799-800, 813n.233, 829-32, 842n.71, 849-51, 857-62

oral paradigm, 253, 332-33, 343 oral performance, 201-5, 239-40, 246, 24849, 254, 305, 329, 334, 336, 464, 585, 589n.205, 597n.240, 685-86, 687, 700, 718, 738-39, 741n.l52, 759, 767-68, 773-74, 779n.84, 780-83, 799-803, 81314, 829-32, 865-66 pre-Easter origin, 130n.l08, 201, 245 and prophecy, 186-92, 238, 253, 323 second orality, 146, 162, 200, 202-4, 250

455-57, 468, 497n.34, 504 translation into Greek, 245, 741-43, 746 Jew, 262-64, 285, 287-88, 292-94, 297, 330 John the Baptist, 323, 334, 339, 348-79, 733, 797, 804, 808 baptism of, 355-62, 606-7

baptism of preparation, 361-62 baptism of repentance, 358, 360-61 beginning of the gospel, 352-55, 376 death of, 377-79

differences between the Baptist and Jesus,

445-55, 706 as Elijah, 353-54

eschatological expectation, 365, 368-69 Jesus break with, 352, 380, 424-25, 455,

466, 469, 606-7 Jesus, disciple of, 350-52, 419-20, 451,

699 preaching of, baptize in Spirit, 366-69 judgment, 364-69, 808-9 the one to come, 369-71 as prophet, 657-58 redivivus, 657, 822 John's Gospel historical value of, 40-41, 140, 165-67, 328 Joseph of Arimathea, 540, 782-83, 831n.21, 838n.55

Judaism, 255-62, 264-66, 280-81, 285-92, 330 calendrical disputes, 282, 292 common Judaism, 280-81, 297 contrast to Christianity, 86-88, 563-65 diaspora, 256, 261, 273-75, 278, 515 factionalism, 281-86, 288-92, 330, 397-98 identity markers, 295, 299. See also pillars of Judaism 'late Judaism', 87, 258 'legalistic', 563-65 new perspective, 89-90 pillars of, 286-92

separation from Gentiles, 289-90, 292, 603, 605

Judas Iscariot, 508, 510, 630, 770-71 Judean, 262-63, 287-88, 293-94, 297 Judgment, final, 395-96, 420-25, 449, 466, 469, 478, 539, 755, 808, 817

Kingdom of God, 38n.60, 45-48, 62, 333n.l8, 334, §12 esp. 383-92, 465-66, 486-87, 489, 512, 520, 694

central in Jesus preaching, 383-87, 465,

608, 617, 724, 761-62 embodied in Jesus, 707 future/coming, 405, §12.4, 443-44, 478-84, 539-40, 583, 608, 723, 791, 808, 81921,824 of heaven, 384n.7, 414n.l65 imminent, 431-37

in Jewish literature, 385n.l3, 390-92 living in the light of, 583, 588n.l98, 59192,601,605,607-11,762

meaning of, 388-90, 401-4, 543 as metaphor/symbol, 56, 61, 91-92, 401-5,

484-87, 489, 794 mystery of, 495-96 present, 405, §12.5 sapiential kingdom, 471-72, 608

Liberal Protestantism, 35-39, 45, 51-52, 73 Last Supper, 229-31, 324, 512-13, 601, 605,

664, 766, 771-73, 795-96, 805, 815-17 Law. See Torah

546-47, 549-50, 554-55, 561, 589-91, 717 Love of enemy, 586-88, 624 Love of neighbor, 539, 583-86, 589, 609-11, 624

Magic, definition, 689. See also Jesus and magic Mark, Gospel of

Markan priority, 41-45, 140, 143-46, 222,

253-54 Secret Gospel of, 169-70 Mary of Magdala, 534-35, 540, 829-34, 842-43 Martha and Mary, 535-36, 540 mother of Jesus, 340-41, 345-47, 534 Mashal, 494, 575n.l41, 743, 746, 760, 800801, 806-7, 821, 823 Matthew, 319, 508-9, 533 Memorization, 197-98, 224 Messiah, 371, 377, 751

hope of, 394, 448-49, 618-22, 640, 654 priestly messiah, 654-55, 706 Qumran expectation, 451, 604 royal pretender, 627, 647-49 = Son of God, 709-11, 762. See also Jesus as Messiah Messianic banquet, 394, 404, 426-28, 478, 603-4,646

Messianic secret, 50, 624-27, 643-45, 647-49,

675n.285, 676, 830n.l4 Metaphor, 367-68, 707

Miqwaoth, 269, 289, 289n.l50, 295, 299, 606 Miracle, 29-34, 43-44, 65, 103-4 Modernity, 26-29, 396-97, 470 Mysticism, 272, 274 Myth, 32-33, 374, 397, 485-86

Narrative criticism, 94, 119-20

519-20 New creation, 395

Objectivity, 107-9

Open fellowship, 605-8, 610-11

Palestine, 257-58

Parables of Jesus, 331, 334. 385, 494-96, 698 contrasting pairs, 454n.347, 476 of crisis, 418n.l86, 428-31 of growth, Passion narrative, §17.1 Passion predictions, 798-802, 807 Paul, conversion of, 210-12

knowledge of Jesus. See Jesus, Paul's knowledge of People of the land, 277, 528 Peter, 44, 146, 180-81, 317nn.302,305, 503, 508, 509n.96, 540, 557, 645, 830-31, 84346

Peter's confession, 644-45 Peter, James, and John, 180-81, 510n.l03, 540

Pharisees, 88-90, 266-70, 280, 282-83, 288, 290, 307-8, 526-28, 531, 540, 559, 564-65, 568, 571-72, 600, 602-3, 605-6, 617, 78486, 789n.l37, 822 in Galilee, 306-8 Pilate, 312, 628-29, 634, 646, 651-52, 765-66,

774-77, 786 Plain meaning, 21-23, 30n.l9, 115-18, 135 Poor, 342n.l6, 413n.l59, 516-26, 540, 545, 565, 608-9, 663 rich/poor, 521-24, 609 Positivism, 27-29, 109-10, 672-73 Postmodernism, 92-97, 111-12, 115-16,121,

136, 470, 477 Prayer, 554-55, 561 Priests, 276

high priests, 271, 287-88, 785-86, 788-90 Probability, 102-5

Prophecy, 480-83, 485 failed prophecy, 480-83 false prophecy, 482 Prophet

Elijah, 655-57, 669, 682n.315 eschatological prophet, 656, 662, 703

Jewish expectation, 655-57 like Moses, 656, 663n.230, 665, 669 rejection of, 722, 797 sign prophets, 402, 658-60, 663, 669, 693 prophetic symbolism, 805. See also Jesus as prophet Prostitutes, 531n.201, 536 Pseudepigrapha, 256-57, 273-75, 280 Purity, 267-69, 270, 283, 289-92, 316, 57377, 602-3, 609, 788-90, 795 clean and unclean, 289-90, 292, 295, 565,

571-72, 574 hand washing, 570-72

Q, 41-44, 59-61, 63-64, 134, 140, 147-60, 231-38, 247, 328, 467-69, 800n.l89 access to Jesus, 331, 468 Aramaic, 159n.l55 community of, 149-52, 158, 251 Cynic character of, 154, 298-300 one document per community fallacy,

51, 158, 251, 275, 468 document, 147-49, 156, 237, 253-54 redaction of, 152-58, 355, 424, 468 Torah in, 579n.l55 Qorban, 569-70

Quest of Historical Jesus, 13-15, chs. 4—5 New Quest, 78-85 Third Quest, 85-92 Qumran, 271-72, 275, 282, 288, 604-6, 646

allusions to in Jesus tradition,

587n.l94, 604-5 as priestly community, 604

Reader response, 95 Reformation, 20-24, 101-2, 112 Renaissance, 17-20, 23-24, 28, 92, 101-2, 136 Repentance, 358, 360-61, 498-500, 503, 5067, 529, 531-32, 607 Resurrection, 30, 368-69, 396, 478, 821-24 appearances, §18.3, 864-66, 872-74 to James, 854, 862-64, 866 to Paul, 855-57, 861, 864-65 to Peter, 843-46, 862-64, 866 to the twelve, 849-54

to women, 841-43 empty tomb, §18.2, 864 of Jesus, 30-31, 78n.45, 132, 143, 158, 175n.l2, 177, 333, 495n.28, §18, 868-70 conceptualization of, 870-72, 874-76 as historical, 876-78 as interpretation, 877-78 as metaphor, 823-24, 878-79 physical, 835-36, 839-40 spiritual, 839

on the third day, 823-24, 860-61, 865 Return from exile, 393, 402, 450n.319, 47377, 506n.81, 532n.207, 591n.211, 664n.230, 795 Retainers, 269, 276, 307n.240 Reward, 425-26, 521n.l58 Righteous, 282-83, 290, 527, 531, 540 Romantic revival, 35-36, 39, 106, 118, 124

Sabbath, 292, 565-69, 609

importance in Judaism, 569n.ll3

Sadducees, 270-71, 280, 283, 288 Samaritans, 279-80, 539 Sanhedrin,

Satan, defeat of, 395, 460-61, 466 Scientific criticism, 29-32 Scientific inquiry, 25-28, 92-93 Scribes, 276, 785-86 Sect, 265n.44, 271n.74, 272, 285-86

Christians as, 279, 286 Sepphoris, 278, 298-302, 309-10, 319-21,

519-20, 572n.l28 Sermon on Mount/Plain, 231-34 Shema, 288, 316 Sicarii, 273, 623n.40

Sinners, 57, 81, 282-85, 292, 454n.348, 52634, 540, 565, 600, 663-64 Solomon, 667 Son of God, 709-11

Son of Man, 61, 330, 333n.l8, 370, 406n.l23, 409n.l33, 423n.219, 430n.246, 432-33, 454n.348, 478, 527n.l84, 567, 660, 868 apocalyptic, 725, 729-36, 747-54, 760-61,

814-15 coming on clouds, 794 days of, 754-55

idiom, 725-28, 734-36, 739-46, 759 influence from Similitudes, 756-57, 760-61 Jesus' use of, 737-46, 759-61 promise of, 757-58, 761 Sources, 40-45, 58-60, 63-65, 72, 75-76, §7, 250

withdrawal of, 658n.204 Suffering, 561-62, 648-49, 816-17

of disciples, 417-20 Suffering Servant, 809-18, 820 Synagogue, 302-6

in Capernaum, 318n.309 in Galilee, 302-6, 316n.291

Table fellowship, 454, 599-608, 611, 646,

848, 852 Taxation, 310-11, 519-20, 533 Teachers, 253

Teacher of Righteousness, 696-97 Temple, 271-72, 274, 279, 287-88, 290-91, 294, 296, 316, 323, 637-39, 785-86, 78890, 795-96

building of, 394, 631-33

664, 793, 795, 798 Jesus' word on, 332n.l4, 514-15, 798 new Temple, 514-15 Testaments, 274 Thomas, 509, 843n.73, 851 Tiberias, 278, 298-99, 309-10, 319-21 Tithing, 580

Toll collectors, 57, 81, 319, 526-28, 532-34, 600,664

Torah, 269-70, 275, 291-92, 296, 529, 563-83. See also Jesus and the law make or break issues, 267, 285, 529, 565,

568, 576-78, 580, 583 oral Torah, 270. See also Halakhah Translation, 20, 112-13, 135 Tribulation, final, 395, 411, 419 20, 453n.338,

466, 597n.242, 808-9, 817-18, 824 Tribute to Caesar, 635-36, 650-51 Twelve, 334, 507-11, 516, 536-37, 540, 664, 717, 816n.25i mission of, 159-60, 243-44, 247, 407, 53637

Wandering charismatics, 54-55, 243-44, 322, 331, 558-59, 568n.lll, 588n.200, 593, 594n.223, 609n.296 Wisdom tradition, 275

Zeal, 262, 272, 284n.l35 Zealots, 262, 272-73, 623

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