Mark also asserts that Jesus called Peter and Andrew to make them 'fishers of men' (Mark and that he chose twelve in order that he might send them out to preach and to exercise authority in the casting out of demons (Mark 3.14). He thus makes explicit what is implicit anyway in the tradition of Jesus sending out the twelve on mission (Mark 6.6-12 pars.).67 That is, that Jesus chose an immedi
(81), but there is a good deal more in the Jesus tradition than falls neatly under that heading. Crossan also protests that 'disciples' is probably not the best term, since it presumes a relation of master and students, with overtones of domination and control; he prefers to describe the kingdom of God as a 'companionship of empowerment' rather than Schussler Fiorenza's 'discipleship of equals' (Birth 336-37), but at this point ideology is being allowed to trample over the language used in the Jesus tradition.
63. See again above, chapter 8 nn. 22-23.
64. See above, §8.3e. Note Hengel's critique of Gerhardsson at this point (Charismatic Leader 53, 80-81).
65. We need only mention the end of the Sermon on the Mount/Plain (Matt. 7.24-27/ Luke 6.47-49) and the complex of remembered teaching in Mark 8.38/Luke 9.26 (cf. Matt. 10.32-33/Luke 12.8-9); see below, §15.8c(6).
66. See particularly Hengel, who also offers a reconstruction of the Aramaic original (Charismatic Leader76-78); Meier, Marginal Jew3.159-61; see also above, chapter 13 n. 96.
67. See above, chapter 8 n. 282. 'The Twelve were Jesus' shalihim' (Witherington,
Witherington also thinks that they were sent out late in the Galilean ministry, perhaps just before the feeding of the five thousand (135).
ate group of disciples with a view to their assisting or sharing in his own mission. We have already noted that the Q tradition recalls Jesus sending out his disciples to proclaim the very same message that characterized Jesus' own preaching: 'The kingdom of God has drawn near' (Matt. 10.7/Luke 10.9).68 Most striking is the saying preserved in Matt. 10.40/Luke 10.16 in teaching attached to the mission commission:
He who receives you receives me, and he who receives me receives him who sent me.
He who hears you hears me, and he who rejects you rejects me; but he who rejects me rejects him who sent me.
The saying is usually taken to reflect the concerns of the subsequent communities in regard to their own authorisation,69 and no doubt it does so. But the idea of Jesus' disciples as representing their master is recalled at various points in the ongoing tradition.70 And the saliah principle (saliah = 'sent man'), that the one who is sent is as the one who sends (m. Ber. 5.5), is generally reckoned to be at the root of the concept of apostleship.71 So the principle may be assumed to have been already familiar at the time of Jesus. In other words, here too the saying, in its different versions, simply makes explicit what was anyway implicit: that Jesus sent out his disciples to carry forward the mission to which he evidently believed himself to have been called.
To be a disciple, then, was to take part in Jesus' mission. Does this give sufficient ground for Theissen's description of Jesus' following as 'a movement of wandering charismatics'?72 Not really. For all Theissen's concern to root his
68. It is doubtful whether the second commissioning of seventy(-two) in Luke 10.1-12 provides sufficient evidence of a second sending out by Jesus; it is more likely that Luke himself has compiled two commissionings from the differing Mark and Q traditions (e.g., Fitzmyer, Luke 842-43), possibly to foreshadow the double mission of earliest Christianity (to Jews and Gentiles), as in 14.21-23.
69. Funk, Five Gospels 175-76; Ludemann, Jesus 329.
70.Mark 9.37 pars.; John 13.20; Did. 1 1.4;Ignatius, Eph. 6.1 (lattertexts in Aland, Synopsis 149; see also Crossan, Fragments 104-19). The idea of acting 'in the name of Jesus, that is, with his authority or authorisation, also carries the same overtones (Mark 9.37 pars.; 13.6 pars.; Mark 9.38-39/Luke 9.49; Matt. 7.22; 18.20; Luke 10.17).
71. See, e.g., Davies and Allison, Matthew 2.153-54 (bibliography in nn. 34-35), but see also chapter 15 n. 226 below.
72. Cited above, §4.6; for its influence see chapter 7 n. 96. Crossan regards this complex of sayings (Mission and Message — centring on GTh 14; Mark 6.7-13 pars.; Q 10.4-11) as 'the most important unit for understanding the historical Jesus . . .'. The itinerants in view are 'dispossessed and now landless laborers, close to but not yet beggars'. He envisages not a single sending, but 'a permanent process, with Jesus as the moving center of a changing group' and cites Patterson's argument (Thomas and Jesus 132) that 'originally the ideal of radical analysis in the social conditions of the time, the description suggests that a hint of the old romantic idealism of a Renan still lingers. For one thing, it would appear that only a few who may properly be called Jesus' disciples actually went out on mission on Jesus' behalf.73 And for another, a mission throughout Galilee need involve only a sequence of one or two days travel from a centre like Capernaum.74 Indeed, apart from the references to the sending out of the twelve (Mark 6.7 pars.) and journeys to the region of Tyre and Sidon and perhaps the villages of Caesarea Philippi (7.24 par.; 8.27 par.), the Gospel accounts seem to envisage outreach mainly from a base in Capernaum, either across the lake, to villages/towns like Chorazin and Bethsaida, or less than a day's journey to places like Nain and Cana.75
Nevertheless, it could be fairly said that a sharing in Jesus' mission is another element in the distinctiveness of being a disciple of Jesus. For if Pharisees did not seek out disciples, neither did they send them out on mission. And there is no evidence of Essenes actually seeking to evangelize or proselytize in the name, say, of the Teacher of Righteousness. The nearness of the eschatological horizon was obviously an important factor in the case of Jesus' commission, but it is worth noting that the subsequent communities preserved and reused the mission instructions despite the horizon drawing no nearer. Worth noting also is the fact that the eschatological tension within the instructions between good news and healing offered on the one hand and judgment pronounced on the other76 closely mirrors the same tension in Jesus' kingdom preaching (§§12.4-5).
itinerancy was not necessarily linked with early Christian "mission" at all but rather had more the quality of a permanent manner of living, a life-style advocated by the Jesus movement' (Birth 325-37, citing 325, 335, 337, 328). He further argues that a dialectic of dissent between itinerants and householders can be traced from the historical Jesus, through the Q material and into Didache (Part VIII): 'Behind Q Gospel 6:36-49 you must hear the criticisms made against the itinerants by the householders even as you read the itinerants countercriticizing the householders in defense of themselves' (357). That such Jesus tradition was used in many exhortations in early Christian communities is entirely probable (note particularly Luke 6.36), but Crossan grossly over-schematizes a complex of motifs.
73. Though also to be noted is the implication that disciples are to be 'salt' and 'light' (Matt. 5.13-16), Matthew's tradition drawing the implication from more general sayings in the tradition (Mark 9.49-50 and Luke 14.34-35; Mark 4.21 and Luke 8.16).
74. References to mission throughout Galilee (as in Mark 1.39; see above, §9.9f) have to be balanced against references to Capernaum as his settled base (see above, §9.9d).
75. See again §9.9f above, and on the likelihood that Jesus extended his mission to Judea and Jerusalem see §9.9g.
76. Mark 6.7 pars. (Matt. 10.8 heightens the parallel by including a foreshadowing of 11.5); Mark 6.11 pars.; Matt. 10.12-13, 15/Luke 10.5-6, 12.
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