great storm arose on the sea, so great that the boat was being swamped by the waves; but he was asleep.

25 And they went and woke him up. saying,

"Lord, save us! We are perishing!" 26 And he said to them, "Why are you you of little faith?" Then he got up and rebuked the winds

35 On that day, when evening had come, he said to them, "Let us go across to the other side".

36 And leaving the crowd behind, they took him with them in the boat, just as he was. Other boats were with him. 37 A great arose, and the waves beat into the boat, so that the boat was already being filled. 38 But he was in the stern, sleeping on the cushion; and they woke him up and said to him, "Teacher, do you not care that we are perishing?"

39 He got up and rebuked the

22 One day he got into a boat with his disciples, and he said to them, "Let us go across to the other side of the lake". So they put out, 23 and while they were sailing he fell asleep. A stormwind swept down on the lake, and the boat was filling up, and they were in danger. 24 They went to him and woke him up, saying,

"Master, Master, we are perishing!"

And he got up and rebuked the wind

and the sea;

and there was a dead calm.

27 The men were amazed, saying,

"What sort of man is that even the winds and the sea obey

and said to the sea, "Be quiet! Silence!" Then the wind ceased, and there was a dead calm. 40 He said to them, "Why are you afraid? Have you still no faith?" 41 And they were filled with great awe and said to one another,

"Who then is that even the wind and the sea obey

and the raging waves;

they ceased, and there was a calm. 25 He said to them,

"Where is your faith?"

They were afraid and amazed, and said to one another, "Who then is this, that he commands even the winds and



the water, and they obey him?"

Here again we have the characteristic features of different retellings of a single story about Jesus. The key points remain constant: Jesus with his disciples in a boat (on the lake); a great storm and Jesus asleep (differently described); the disciples rouse Jesus, he rebukes the wind and sea and a calm results; Jesus questions the disciples' lack of faith and they express wonder. The key lines are clearly: 'he got up and rebuked the wind(s), and there was a calm'; 'who is this that even the wind(s) obey him?'204 Round this core the story could be told and retold, the details varied in accordance with the context of retelling and with any particular angle the storyteller wished to bring out.205

Once again it is quite possible to argue for a purely literary connection —

204. It is widely recognized that the story is structured on the pattern of the story of Jonah, with the key lines distinctive to bring out the point, How much greater than Jonah is here; see, e.g., Davies and Allison, Matthew 2.70.

205. In particular Matthew's retelling emphasizes the themes of discipleship/following (akolouthein — 8.19, 22, 23) and of 'little faith' (oligopistos/ia), distinctive to Matthew (8.26; c£ 6.30; 14.31; 16.8; 17.20). See also below § 13.2b.

Matthew and Luke drawing upon and editing Mark's (for them) original. The problem with the purely literary hypothesis is that most of the differences are so inconsequential. Why, for example, as literary editors would it be necessary for them to vary the description of the danger of the boat being swamped (each uses different verbs) and to vary the account of Jesus sleeping and the references to the disciples' fear and lack of faith? Is it not more plausible to deduce that Matthew and Luke knew their own (oral) versions of the story and drew on them primarily or as well? Alternatively, it could be that they followed Mark in oral mode, as we might say; that is, they did not slavishly copy Mark (as they did elsewhere), but having taken the point of Mark's story they retold it as a teller would, retaining the constant points which gave the story its identity, and building round the core to bring out their own distinctive emphases.

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