A The Righteous Martyr

The thought that the unjust suffering and death of a righteous man might mark the end of the people's suffering and even contribute somehow to its ending had already been expressed in regard to the Maccabean martyrs.209 If Jesus was at all influenced by the strong tradition within Jewish wisdom and apocalyptic thought regarding the suffering righteous, as seems likely (§17.4a-b), then it is entirely possible that he spoke of his own anticipated suffering and death in the same terms.210

b. The Suffering Son of Man

I have already pressed the likelihood that Jesus used the vision of Daniel's 'one like a son of man' to inform his own expectations (§16.5). We can now add the observations of Jane Schaberg that the core saying (Mark 9.31) also shows evidence of influence from Daniel: 'son of man' (Dan. 7.13); 'handed over' (7.25); not to mention 'raised' (12.2).211 It is also by no means clear that Daniel's kebar 'enas ('one like a son of man') was yet perceived as a use of bar 'enas any different from the normal Hebrew/Aramaic idiom ('a son of man'). In other words, it remains likely that this way of describing the figure in the vision (whether symbol or angelic representative) was chosen precisely because

209. 2 Macc. 7.33-38, but also anticipated in 1 Macc. 2.50 and 6.44 (Casey, Aramaic Sources 214-16). The early Maccabean literature (1 and 2 Maccabees) probably emerged in the first half of the first century BCE (J. A. Goldstein, 2 Maccabees [AB; New York: Doubleday, 1983] 71-84). Goldstein points out that in 2 Maccabees 7 'the mother and her sons do not substitute for rest of suffering Israel. They are part of suffering Israel and hope that their deaths will mark the turning point prophesied by Moses, which is in any case sure to come' (315-16). Casey also mentions Dan. 11.35 (but see Collins, Daniel 386). And Witherington, Christology 252, mentions 1QS 5.6, 8.3-10 and 9.4, and T. Ben. 3.8; but the latter clearly reflects Christian influence, and the texts hardly refer to the death of the righteous as having atoning value (note the brief discussion in R, A. Kugler, 'Rewriting Rubrics: Sacrifice and the Religion of Qumran', in J. J. Collins and R. A. Kugler, eds., Religion in the Dead Sea Scrolls [Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2000] 90-112 [here 90-92]). See also E. Lohse, Märtyrer und Gottesknecht. Untersuchungen zur urchristlichen Verkündigung vom Sühntod Jesu Christi (Göttingen: Vandenhoeck, 1955, 21963); Hengel, Atonement 1-32, 65-75.

210. See also Schürmann, Gottes Reich 225-45. Although the distinctive martyr theology emerged within Hellenistic Judaism, the roots of the theology are deep in Second Temple Judaism, and the ideal of sacrificing one's life for a friend is much more widely attested, being taken up e.g. in T. Ash. 2.3 and Paul {Rom. 5.7); see further G. Stählin, 'philos', TDNT9.153-54.

211. J. Schaberg, 'Daniel 7.12 and the New Testament Passion-Resurrection Predictions', NTS 31 (1985) 208-22 (here 209-13).

'a son of man' typically denoted the human condition in all its frailty (§16.3a n. 85). Since, in the appended interpretation, the manlike figure represents 'the saints of the Most High' in their vindication following the terrible suffering inflicted on them by the fourth kingdom (Dan. 7.19-23, 25), the 'one like a son of man' is a fitting symbol of Judah's frailty before the onslaught of Antiochus Epiphanes.212

In other words, we should not let the subsequent interpretation of Daniel's vision, where a specific heavenly being is envisaged (but 'son of man' is not yet a firm title), deflect us from recognizing the likelihood that a use of the idiomatic 'son of man' would quite naturally see Dan. 7.13 as an example of the same idiom. That is to say, as soon as we recognize that an implication of suffering frailty was part of Daniel's 'one like a son of man', it becomes equally easy to see that amasal like that embedded in the second Passion prediction could quite readily evoke also Daniel's vision.

Neither should we allow the traditional classification of the Son of Man sayings in the Gospels into three categories (present activity, suffering, com-to confuse us into assuming that these were different usages requiring different explanations. If Jesus did draw on Daniel's vision on at least some occasions (§ 16.4c), then it was not simply to inform his hope of vindication (§ 16.5c), but to instruct his sense that suffering prior to that vindication was unavoidable. Here thought of the frailty of bar meshes into the thought of the suffering righteous. Daniel's vision is itself part of that substantial tradition in Jewish thought: that the righteous of Israel ('the saints of the Most High') must expect to suffer for their devotion to Yahweh.

Daniel's use of as a way of speaking of the (suffering) righteous of Israel raises one further possibility: that Jesus saw in Daniel's vision a prediction of the sufferings he (Jesus) must suffer as representative of, on behalf of, Israel. The thought does not come to expression in Daniel's vision, any more than the martyr theology of 2 Maccabees 7 expressed thought of vicarious suffering. But however inchoate, the thought is not far from the surface in Jesus' use of bar 'enasa, andnotjust whenthat usage contained an allusion to Dan. 7.13.For if Jesus did indeed refer to himself as 'the (son of) man', then in some degree he was focusing what was generally true of humankind in his own condition. And if he did find in Dan. 7.13 an image to inspire his own mission, then that inspiration may well have included some sense that the 'one like a son of man' represented Israel.

212. Cf. particularly Hooker, Son of Man 108-109.

213. Bultmann continues to be widely followed (Theology 1.30); e.g., Merklein, Jesu Botschaft 153; Flusser, Jesus 126; Theissen and Merz, Historical Jesus 546-48; Strecker, Theology 257; Becker, Jesus 204.

For many this line of reflection will have become much too speculative. But it interweaves with and is strengthened by the strand which emerged from the other metaphors used by Jesus (§17.4d).

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