1. General accounts: H. A. R. Gibb, Modem Trends in Islam, Chicago 1947; Wilfred Cantwell Smith, Modem Islam in India, London 1946, etc.; do., Islam in Modern History, Princeton 1957; Kenneth Cragg, Counsels in Contemporary Islam, Edinburgh 1965, with an extensive bibliography; G. E. von Grunebaum, Modem Islam: The Search for Cultural Identity, Berkeley 1962.

2. Muhammad 'Abduh: Charles C. Adams, Islam and Modernism in Egypt, London 1933, a study of Muhammad 'Abduh and his followers : Ishaq Musa'ad and Kenneth Cragg, The Theology of Unity, London 1965, translation of Risalat at-tawlfid.

3. Iqbal: Iqbal, The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam, London 1934; Annemarie Schimmel, Gabriel's Wing, Leiden 1963, with full bibliography to 1963 of the vast literature about Iqbal; do., EI2, art. Ikbal; Cragg, Counsels (n. 1), 48-66.

4. Abul Kalam Azad: The Tarjumdn al-Qur'an, tr. Syed Abdul Latif, London 1965 (vol.r), 1967 (vol.2); EI2, Supp., art. Azad, Abu '1-Kalam (A. Guimbretiere); Cragg, Counsels, 125-39.

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