Notes

1. General bibliography on Qadarism: Josef van Ess, art. Kadariyya in EI2, which includes the results of a number of other studies by him: Tiaditionistische Polemik gegen 'Ami b. 'Ubaid (Beiruter Texte und Studien, 7), Beirut 1967;' Umar II and his Epistle against the Qadariya', Abr Nahrain, xii (1971), 19-26; 'Ma"bad al-Guhani', in R. Gramlich (ed.), Islamwissenschaftliche Abhandlungen (Festschrift Fritz Meier), Wiesbaden 1974, 49-77; 'Les Qadarites et la Gailanlya de Yazid III', Studia Islamica, xxxi (1970), 269-86; Zwischen Hadit und Theologie, Studien zum Entstehen piades-

tinatianischei Überlieferung, Berlin 1975; Anfänge Muslimischer Theologie, zwei antiqadaritische Traktate aus dem ersten Jahrhundert der Higra (Beiruter Texte und Studien, 14), Beirut 1977. Michael Cook, Early Muslim Dogma (n.4/4)/ criticizes van Ess's studies of the Qadarites but has no firm suggestions of positive alternatives except in respect of 'influences'. Formative Period, 77-118.

2. Hellmut Ritter, 'Studien zur Geschichte der islamischen Frömmigkeit : Hasan al-Basri...', Der Islam, xxi (1933), 1-83, has the text of the Risäla and discusses doctrines; Michael Schwarz, 'The Letter of al-Hasan al-Basri', Oriens, xx (1967), 15-30; Cook, op. cit., 117-23. Further reference in Sezgin, GSA, 1.591-4; Formative Period, 334, n.3/37.

3. Text, translation and discussion in van Ess, Anfänge, 1x3-76, Arabic 4 3 - S 4; also an earlier article (see n. 5 /1).

4. Carl H. Becker, Christianity and Islam, London 1909 translation of a German article in his Islamstudien, Leipzig 1924, i.386-431; also an article 'Christliche Polemik und islamische Dogmenbüd-ung', reprinted in Islamstudien, i.432-49, from Zeitschrift für Assyriologie, xxvi (1911), 175-95. Morris S. Seale, Muslim Theology, A Study of Origins with Reference to the Church Fathers, London 1964. Cook, Early Muslim Dogma (n.4/4).

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