Notes

x. Hanbalism : H. Laoust, art. Hanâbila in EI2, and also 'Le hanbalisme sous le califat de Bagdad', Revue des Études Islamiques, xxvii (1959), 67-128.

2. Al-Ajurri(Abù-BakrMuhammadibn-al-Husayn): G AL, i.173; GAS, i.194.

3. Ibn-Sam'ûn (Abû-l-Husayn Muhammad) : GALS, i.360; GAS, i.667.

4. Ibn-Batta: GALS, i.311 ; GAS, i-si4f.; H. Laoust, La Profession de foi d'Ibn Batta, Damascus 1958, edition and translation,- review of this by Louis Gardet, 'L'importance historique du Hanbalisme d'après un livre recent', Arabica, vi.125-32.

5. Qàdiriyya: English version in Adam Mez, The Renaissance of Islam, Eng. tr. by S. Khuda Bakhsh and D. S. Margoliouth, Patna 1937, 207-9; cf. Makdisi, Ibn 'Aqû ln.14/9), 299-310, with French version, 304-8 ,- also Laoust, Profession, Introd., xcii-xcix.

6. Ibn-Hamïd (Abû-'Abd-Allâh al-Hasan al-Warrâq): GALS, i.311 ; GAS, i.515 ; Makdisi, op. cit., 227-30.

7. Abu-Yalâ: GALS, i.686 ,- Makdisi, op. cit., 232-6,- Daniel Gimaret, 'Théories de l'acte humain dans l'école hanbalite', Bulletin d'études orientales (Institut français de Damas), xxix (1977), 157-78, esp. 161-5.

8. Abù-Ja'far: GALS, i.687; Makdisi, op. cit., 240-8. 337-40, 350-66, 426-39.

9. Ibn-'Aqïl (Abù-l-Wafà' 'Ali az-Zafarî): GAL, i.502; GALS, i.687; George Makdisi, Ibn 'Aqû et la resurgence de l'Islam traditionaliste au Xle siècle, Damascus 1963 -, also EI2, art. Ibn 'Akil (Abu '1-Wafâ'); also ed. The Notebooks of Ibn 'Aqû, Kitâb al-funûn, 2 vols., Beirut n.d. (? 1970,1971).

10. Ibn-Hubayta : GALS, L687L -, EI2, art. Ibn Hubayra (G. Makdisi).

11. 'Abd-al-Qàdiral-Jïlànï: EI2, art. 'Abdal-Kàdiral-Djïlànï(W.Braune!.

12. Ibn-al-Jawzï (Abü-l-Faraj 'Abd-ar-Rahmän ibn-Abî-1-Hasan) : GAL, i.659-66; GALS, i.914-20; EI2, art. Ibnal-Djawzi('Abdal-Rahmän) (Laoust).

13. EI2, arts. Ibn Manda (F. Rosenthal); (al-)Ansâri al-Harawî (S. de Beaurecueil).

14. Abü-l-Faraj ash-Shirâzï : Makdisi, Ibn 'Aqil, 239.

15. Ibn-Qudäma: G AL, i.502-4; GALS, i.688f. ; Makdisi, ed. and translator, Ibn Qudäma's Censure of Speculative Theology (Gibb Memorial Series), London 1962 ; also EI2, art. Ibn Kudâma.

16. Al-Hakîm as-Samarqandi (Abü-l-QäsimIshäq): GALS, i.295 ; GAS, i.606 ; English translation of As-Sawäd al-a'zam in an unpublished phD thesis by Farouq 'Omar 'Abdallah al-'Ömar, Edinburgh 1974.

17. Abü-l-Layth (Nasr ibn-Muhammad) : G AL, i.2iof.; GALS, i.374f.; EI2, art. Abu '1-Layth al-Samarqandï (J. Schacht).

18. Al-Pazdawi (Abü-l-Yusr Muhammad ibn-Muhammad ibn-al-Hu-sayn) : not in G AL, ; his K. usül ad-din, ed. Hans Peter Linss, Cairo 1963.

19. Abü-Hafs an-Nasafi (Umar ibn-Muhammad): GAL, i.548-50; GALS, i.758-61; EIS, art. (al-)Nasafî II (A. J. Wensinck).

20. Abü-Mu'in an-Nasafi (Maymùn ibn-Muhammad): GAL, i.547; GALS, i.757 ; Eng. tr. of creed in A. Jeffery, A Reader on Islam, The Hague 1962, 375-456; EIS, art. (al-)NasafiI |A. J. Wensinck).

21. Al-Ushî(Sirâj-ad-dîn 'Alîibn-Uthmân): GAL,i-552f.; GALS, 1.764Î.

22. Ibn-'Abbäd (Abü-1-Qäsim Ismâ'îl as-$âhib at-Täliqäni): GAL, i. 136L; GALS, i.i98f.; EP, art. Ibn "Abbäd'(Cahen ; Pellat).

23. 'Abd-al-Jabbär (ibn-Ahmad al-Qädi): GALS, i-343f. ; GAS, i.624-6; EI2, art. 'Abd al-Djabbär b. Ahmad (S. M. Stem), G. C. Anawati, R. Caspar, M. el-Khodeiri, 'line somme inédite de théologie mu'tazilite: Le Moghni du Qädi 'Abd al-Jabbär', Mélanges de l'Institut Dominicain des Études Orientales (Cairo), iv (1957), 281-316; George F. Hourani, Islamic Rationalism: the Ethics of 'Abd al-Jabbär, Oxford 1971 ; Michael Schwarz, 'The Qädi 'Adb-al-Cabbär's Refutation of the AS'ante doctrine of "acquisition" [kasb)', Israel Oriental Studies, vi (1976), 229-63.

24. Abü-1-Husayn al-Basri (Muhammad ibn-'All): GAL, i.6oo; GALS, i.829; GAS, i.627.

25. Abu-Rashid: GALS, i.344; GAS, i.626; Max Horten, Die Philosophie des Abu Raschid, Bonn 1910.

26. Az-Zamakhsharf (Abü-l-Qäsim Mahmüd): GAL, i.344-50; GALS, i.507-13 ; EIS, art. (al-)Zamakhshari (C. Brockelmann), Ignaz Gold-ziher, Die Richtungen der islamischen Koranauslegung, Leiden 1920, r 17-77-

27. A later Mu'tazilite was 'Abd-al-Hamid ibn-Abï-1-Hadïd : GAL, i.335f.; GALS, i.497 ; Encyclopaedia Iranica, art. by Madelung.

28. Karrämites: EI2, art. KaiTämiyya (C. E. Bos worth); Massignon, Essai2,255-72.

29. Sälimites : Ignaz Goldziher, 'Die dogmatische Partei der Sälimijja', Zeitschrift der deutschen morgenländischen Gesellschaft, lxi (1907), 73-80 (also in Gesammelte Schriften, Hildesheim 1970, v. 76-83); Louis Massignon, Passion2 (b/e), i.631 andii.i4of. (Eng. tr., i.582 and ii.i3of.), corrects some statements in Passion1, i.301 and EI1, art. Sälimiya (by himself),- cf. his Essai2,294-300.

30. Abü-Tälib al-Makki : G A L, i.217; GALS, i.359f.; EI2, art. AbüTälib al-Makkï (L. Massignon).

31. Ibn-Barrajän: GAL, i.559; EI2, art. IbnBarradjän (A. Faure).

Chapter Fifteen

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