Notes

1. Al-Baydàwï : GAL, i.5 30-4 ; GALS, i.738-43 ; EI2, art. (al-)Baydàwï (J. Robson) ; J. van Ess, 'Das Todesdatum des Baidàwï', Die Welt des Orients, ix (1978), 261-70; A. F. L. Beeston, Baidawi's Commentary on Siiiah 12 of the Qur'ân, Oxford 1963, translation and notes, with facsimile of text.

2. Hàfiz-ad-din an:Nasafi: GAL, ii.250-3; GALS, ii.263-8; EIS, art. (al-iNasafi (3) (W. Heffening).

3. Al-Idjï: GAL, ii.267-71; GALS, ii.287-93; EI2, art. (al-)îdjl (J. van Ess) ; J. van Ess, Die Erkenntnislehre des 'Adudaddîn al-îcï, Wiesbaden 1966, translation of first part of Mawâqif-, do., 'Neue Mater-ialien zur Biographie des 'Adudaddîn al-îgï', Die Welt des Orients, ix(i978), 270-83.

4. At-Taftàzànï : GAL, ii.278-80, GALS, ii.301-4, E. E. Elder, A Commentary on the Creed of Islam, New York, 1950, translation of the commentary on the creed of an-Nasafi.

5. Ibn-Khaldun: GAL, ii.314-17 ; GALS, ii.343-4; EI2, art. IbnKhaldun (M. Talbi); Franz Rosenthal, Ibn Khaldun: The Muqaddimah, 3 vols., London 1958, Eng. translation, with account of Kalàm, iii.34-5 5, partly continued 55-75.

6. Al-Jurjânï: GAL, ii.28of.; GALS, ii-305f.; EI2, art. (al-)Djurdjànï ('All b. Muhammad) (A. S. Tritton).

7. As-Sanùsî : GAL, ii.323-6 ; GALS, ii.352-6 -, EIS, art. (al-)Sanùsï (Abu 'Abd-Allàh) (M. Ben Cheneb).

8. Ad-Dawânï: GAL, ii.281-4; GALS, ii.306-9; EI2, art. (al-)Dawânï (Ann K. S. Lambton); W. F. Thompson (tr.), The Practical Philosophy of the Mohammedan People, London 1839.

9. Birgevi: GAL, ii.583-6; GALS, ii.654-8 ¡EI2, art.Birgewi(K.Kufrevi).

10. Al-Laqànï: GAL, H.4.12Î. -, GALS, ii-436f. ri. As-Siyâlkutî: GAL, ii.550; GALS, ii.613.

12. Al-Fadàlï : GAL, ii.641; GALS, ii.744; EI2, art. (al-)Fadàlï (J. Schacht)translation of Kifàya in Macdonald, Development (b/e).

13. Al-Bâjûrî: GAL, ii.639; GALS, ii.741, EI2, art. (al-)Bâdjùrî (Th. W. Juynboll).

14. Period in general : R. Brunschvig, G. vonGrunebaum(eds.), Classicisme et déclin culturel dans l'histoire de l'Islam, Paris 1957, esp. L. Gardet, 'De quelle manière s'est ankylosée la pensée religieuse de l'Islam?', 93-108.

Chapter Eighteen

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