1. J. Wellhausen, works mentioned in n.2/1. Dwight M. Donaldson, The Shi'ite Religion, London 1933, gives the material from the Imamite sources but without full discussion; S. Husain M. Jafri, Origins and Early Development of Shi'a Islam, London 1979, a critical account by a Shi'ite of the period to 765.

2. EI2, art. Kaysaniyya (W. Madelung), follows the heresiographers. The name Saba'iyya was also used in the period round about 700, but there is some obscurity about it and about 'Abd-Allah b. Saba'} see Formative Period, 59-61.

3. Formative Period, ch.2.1. Friedlaender, 'The Heterodoxies of the Shiites in the presentation of Ibn Hazm', Journal of the American Oriental Society, xxviii (1907), i-8o; xxix (1909), 1-183.

Chapter Four

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