(A) Works of Reference Carl Brockelmann, Geschichte der arabischen Literatur, two vols., second edition, Leiden 1943, 1949; also three Supplementbände, Leiden 1937—42.
Fuat Sezgin, Geschichte des arabischen Schrifttums, vol.i (Islamic disciplines, including theology, until about 1050 ad ), Leiden 1967; philosophy is promised for vol.13.
Georg Graf, Geschichte der christlichen arabischen Literatur, Vatican 1944—53, five vols.; has full articles on the separate authors, who include Christian philosophers and writers of theological polemics against Islam.
J.D.Pearson, IndexIslamicus, 1906-55, Cambridge 1958; an exhaustive list of articles on Islamic subjects in learned journals and composite volumes; the sections relevant to philosophy and theology are: II; IV,a,b. The work has been continued to date by a series of supplements.
Revue des etudes islamiques (Paris); the second half of each annual volume, entitled Abstracta, has lists of printed books and articles, sometimes with short descriptions, but the coverage of articles is not so full as Pearson's Index Islamicus.
The Encyclopaedia of Isläm: first edition, four vols, and supplement, Leiden 1913—42; second edition, Leiden (and London) 1961 continuing, has now reached L. Articles on religion from the first edition, often with some revision, were reprinted in a separate volume in German and English editions: Handwörterbuch des Islam, 1941; A Shorter Encyclopaedia of Islam, 1953. Many of the articles are important, since they contain material not otherwise accessible in European languages; but some of the older ones in the first edition are now unsatisfactory.
(B) Heresiographical Works al-Ash'arI, Maqälät al-Islämiyyin, 2 vols, (continuous paging), ed. H.Ritter, Istanbul 1929-30.
al-BaghdädI, Al-farq bayn al-firaq, ed. M.Badr, Cairo 1910. Translations: Moslem Schisms and Sects, Part I, by Kate C. Seelye, New York 1920, withdrawn because of errors but reprinted 1970; do., Part II, by A.S.Halkin, Tel Aviv 1935.
ash-Shahrastäni, Kitäb al-milal wa-n-nihal, ed. W. Cureton, London 1846; also 3 vols., Cairo 1948. Translations: by Th.Haarbriicker as Religionsparteien und Philosophenschulen, 2 vols., Halle 1850-1 ,• by A.K.Kazi and J.G.Flynn (only the sections dealing with Islamic sects) in the periodical Abr-Nah-rain, beginning with 'the Mu'tazalites' in vol.8 ( 1969 ), 36-68.
an-Nawbakhtï, Kitâb firaq ash-shïa, ed. H. Ritter, Leipzig 1931-
( C ) Older Works on Philosophy
Salomon Münk, Mélanges de philosophie juive et arabe, Paris 1859; has still some value.
Tjitje de Boer, The History of Philosophy in Islam, English translation by E. R. Jones, London 1903.
De Lacy O'Leary, Arabic Thought and its Place in History, London 1922; best on the transmission of Greek thought into Arabic and then into Latin, but now dated.
Goffredo Quadri, Lafilosofiadegliarabinelsuofiore, 2 vols., Florence 1939,- French translation by R.Huret, Paris 1947; unduly emphasizes Averroes.
P. J. Demenasce, Arabische Philosophie, Berne 1948; a bibliography of European books and articles.
Alfred Guillaume, 'Philosophy and Theology', in The Legacy of Islam, ed. by Sir Thomas Arnold and A. Guillaume, Oxford 1931, 239-83; chiefly concerned with the influence of Islamic thought on Europe and its transmission through Spain.
( D ) Recent Works on Philosophy
Henry Corbin, Histoire de la philosophie islamique, vol. i (all published), Paris 1964; also deals with some theologians, but goes only to 1198.
M. M. Sharif ( ed. ), A History of Muslim Philosophy, 2 vols., Wiesbaden 1963-6; very uneven.
Richard Walzer, 'Islamic Philosophy', in his Greek into Arabic, Oxford 1962, 1-28.
Majid Fakhry, A History of Islamic Philosophy, New York 1970.
Dwight M. Donaldson, Studies in Muslim Ethics, London 1953 ; has chapters on the ethics of philosophers and theologians.
H. A. R. Gibb and R. Walzer, 'Akhlâk' (Ethics), EI2-, good.
Nicholas Res cher, The Development of Arabic Logic, Pittsburgh 1964.
( E ) Older Works on Theology
Alfred von Kremer, Geschichte der herrschenden Ideen des Islams, Leipzig 1868; photomechanical reprint, Hildesheim 1961.
Duncan Black Macdonald, The Development of Muslim Theology, Jurisprudence and Constitutional Theory, New York 1903; long influential but now outdated; has translations of several creeds.
Ignaz Goldziher, Vorlesungen über den Islam, second edition, Heidelberg 1925 ; translated into English.
Arent Jan Wensinck, The Muslim Creed, Cambridge 1932; a study based mainly on Hadith and on three Hanafite creeds.
Louis Massignon, La passion . . . d'al-Hallaj, martyr mystique de l'Islam, first edition, 2 vols., Paris 1922; second edition, 4 vols., Paris 1975; English translation of the second edition by Herbert Mason, Princeton 1982. Chapter 12 (pp.535-77i/iii.6i-234) deals with the dogmatic theology of al-Hallâj, comparing him with other thinkers, and giving a wide conspectus of Islamic theological thought.
Louis Massignon, Essai sur les origines du lexique technique de la mystique musulmane, second edition, Paris 1954; has notices of individual mystics up to about 950 with some account of their theological views.
( F ) Recent Works on Theology
Louis Gardet and M. M. Anawati, Introduction à la théologie musulmane, Paris 1948 ; a lengthy work dealing chiefly with Ash'arite Kalâm (rational theology) in the period after 950, its general structure and its relation to Christian theology.
Louis Gardet, Dieu et la destinée de l'homme, Paris 1967 ; a full account of the way in which the writers in the field of Kalâm treat various problems about the relations of God and man.
Morris L. Seale, Muslim Theology, London 1964; largely concerned with tracing Christian influences ; has a translation of a short tract by Ibn-Hanbal.
Henri Laoust, Les schismes dans l'Islam : introduction à une étude de la rehgion musulmane, Paris 1965 ,• detailed study of theology in its political setting.
W. Montgomery Watt, The Formative Period of Islamic Thought, Edinburgh 1973; the German translation mentioned on p. vii is contained in : Watt and M. Marmura, Der Islam II ( Die Religionen der Menschheit, Band 25,2 ), Stuttgart 1985 -, this has also a section on Islamic theology, 950-1850 and a section (by Michael Marmura ) on Islamic philosophy up to Averroes.
Daniel Gimaret, Théories de l'acte humain en théologie musulmane, Paris 1980 ; studies the theories found in Mu'tazil-ite, Ash'arite and Màturidite authors.
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