Notes

General bibliography on Qadarism Josef van Ess, art. Kadariyya in EI2, which includes the results of a number of other studies by him Tiaditionistische Polemik gegen 'Ami b. 'Ubaid (Beiruter Texte und Studien, 7), Beirut 1967 ' Umar II and his Epistle against the Qadariya', Abr Nahrain, xii (1971), 19-26 'Mabad al-Guhani', in R. Gramlich (ed.), Islamwissenschaftliche Abhandlungen (Festschrift Fritz Meier), Wiesbaden 1974, 49-77 'Les Qadarites et la Gailanlya de Yazid III', Studia Islamica, xxxi...

Abul Hashim Contribution Of Muslim Philosophy

(The chapter corresponds to Formative Period, ch.7,180-208.) 1. Translations See GAL, i.219-29 GALS, 1.362-71 Graf (b a), ii. 109-14,122-32, etc. The basic work is Moritz Steinschneider, Die arabischen bersetzungen aus dem Griechischen, Graz 1960 reprinted from various journals dated 1889 to 1896. Other manuscripts have since been discovered. See also Ibn-an-Nadim, Kit b al-Fihrist, part 7, section 1 translation by Bayard Dodge, The Fihrist of al-Nadim, New York 1970, vol.2. Franz Rosenthal,...

The Theological Response To The Impact Of The West

The aim of this chapter is to indicate the various intellectual aspects of the Islamic response to the impact of Europe and more generally of the West.1 No attempt will be made, however, to describe all this in detail, since that has been done for the period up to about 1965 by Kenneth Cragg in the volume Counsels in Contemporary Islam in the present series. What will be attempted is to give a general picture of the lines along which Muslim intellectuals are trying to meet the challenge...

The Stagnation Of Philosophical Theology

The European historian is horrified at the thought that the Middle Ages might be regarded as lasting until the nineteenth century, but the idea is appropriate in an Islamic context. Little had changed there for three or four hundred years, and it was only in the nineteenth century that the intellectual and cultural reactions to the impact of Europe and the West came to be of primary importance. Otherwise it is difficult to characterize the period. It may be called a period of darkness or of...

General Bibliography

(A) Works of Reference Carl Brockelmann, Geschichte der arabischen Literatur, two vols., second edition, Leiden 1943, 1949 also three Supplementb nde, Leiden 1937 42. Fuat Sezgin, Geschichte des arabischen Schrifttums, vol.i (Islamic disciplines, including theology, until about 1050 ad ), Leiden 1967 philosophy is promised for vol.13. Georg Graf, Geschichte der christlichen arabischen Literatur, Vatican 1944 53, five vols. has full articles on the separate authors, who include Christian...

The General Religious Movement

Up to this point the discussion has been of 'heretical' sects, and the question naturally arises whether there was at this time a body of 'orthodox' opinion and, if so, whether anything more can be said about it. The form of this question, however, is not altogether satisfactory. The term 'orthodox' applies in the first place to Eastern Christendom, where there was an authority to say what was 'orthodoxy' or 'right belief' and what was 'heresy'. In Islam, however, there was no such authority....

Theology And Philosophy In The Islamic West

The Islamic West is a convenient term to designate Islamic Spain and North Africa, which are referred to in Arabic as the Maghrib or 'West'. Nearly the whole of Spain was conquered by the Arabs in the early eighth century and became a province of the Umayyad caliphate. Shortly after the overthrow of the Umayyads by the 'Abbasids in 750 a young Umayyad prince, who had managed to escape from the 'Abbasids, became independent ruler of the province of al-Andalus or Spain. The Umayyads maintained...

The Vitality Of The Hanbalites

There had been vigour, even if tinged with fanaticism, among the Hanbalites of Baghdad in the eleventh century. Up till then Baghdad seems to have been their main centre, although, as noted above, there were Hanbalites in other places such as Ispahan and Herat. Before i ioo there were Hanbalite schools in Jerusalem and Damascus, but Jerusalem was captured by the Crusaders in 1099, and the jurists there fled to Damascus. The group in Damascus was further strengthened by other refugees from the...

Islamic Philosophy And Theology

Montgomery Watt 1985 Edinburgh University Press 22 George Square, Edinburgh First published 1962 Second edition 198 s Set in Linoterm Trump Medieval by Speedspools, Edinburgh, and printed in Great Britain by Redwood Burn Ltd, Trowbridge in Publication Data Watt, W. Montgomery Islamic philosophy and theology an extended survey 2nd ed. 1. Islam Doctrines I. Title

The Attraction Of Greek Thought

Within the culture associated with the Islamic religion there has always been a tendency to maintain that Islam is self-sufficient and that in Qur an and Hadith it contains in essentials all the religious and moral truth required by all humanity to the end of time. Muslims have accordingly been hesitant about accepting ideas from other intellectual traditions, and especially from the Judaeo-Christian tradition because of the theory they developed that the Jewish and Christian scriptures had...

Qadar From Religio Political Group Qadarite

For 'the general religious movement' and similar matters see Formative Period, 63-81. 2. Ignaz Goldziher, Muhammedanische Studien, vol.2, Halle 1890 translated as Muslim Studies, vol.2, London 1971 . Joseph Schacht, The Origins of Muhammadan Jurisprudence, Oxford 1950 summarized in An Introduction to Islamic Law, Oxford 1964. Fuat Sezgin, Geschichte des arabischen Schrifttums, vol.i, Leiden 1967, 5 3-84, 'Einf hrung' to the section on Hadlth, summarizing a longer work in Turkish. Further...

The First Wave Of Hellenism

POLITICS AND THEOLOGY UNDER THE 'ABBASIDS When the 'Abbasid dynasty came to power in 750, their claim to the caliphate was based on the assertion that the imamate had passed from 'All to Muhammad ibn-al-Hanafiyya, then to his son Abu-Hashim, and that the latter had designated as his successor the father of the first two 'Abbasid caliphs. Before long, however, this particular claim to legitimacy seems to have been found unsatisfactory, and the caliph al-Mahdi 775-85 replaced it by the claim that...