1. Arthur Koestler, The Sleepwalkers: A History of Man's Changing Vision of the Universe (London, 1959), p. 105. For the attitude see Dimitri Gutas, ''The study of Arabic philosophy in the twentieth century: an essay on the historiography of Arabic philosophy'', British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies 29 (2002), pp. 10-12.

2. Robert Wisnovsky, Avicenna's Metaphysics in Context (London, 2003), p. 301.

3. Louis Massignon, Essay on the Origins of the Technical Language of Islamic Mysticism, tr. Benjamin Clark (Notre Dame, 1997), pp. 34-6, 75-6, 94-8.

4. See Michael E. Marmura, ''Ghazali and Ash'arism revisited'', Arabic Sciences and Philosophy 12 (2002), pp. 91-110. Among other reasons for the acceptability of Sufism one might cite the precedent of the Prophet's own mystical ascension to God (mi'raj).

5. Ayman Shihadeh, ''From al-Ghazala to al-Raza: 6th/i2th century developments in Muslim philosophical theology'', Arabic Sciences and Philosophy 15 (2005), pp. 176, 177.

6. James Morris, ''Ibn 'Araba and his interpreters'', Journal of the American Oriental Society 106 (1986), p. 733.

7. Wisnovsky, Avicenna's Metaphysics, pp. 227-44.

8. For the relationship between Christian anti-Semitism and Islamophobia see Achim Rohde, ''Der Innere Orient: Orientalismus, Antisemitismus und Geschlecht im Deutschland dem 18. bis 20. Jahrhunderts", Welt des Islams 45 (2005), pp. 344-70. Ernest Renan, fountainhead of many Orientalist assumptions about Islamic irrationality, was also given to large theories about the ''Semitic mind''; see Charles Chauvin, Renan (Paris, 2000), pp. 94-5.

9. Francis Robinson, ''Ottomans, Safavids, Mughals: shared knowledge and connective systems'', Journal of Islamic Studies 8 (1997), pp. 151-84.

11. Ibn Qudima al-Maqdisi, Tahrim al-nazar fi kutub ahl al-kalim, tr. George Makdisi as Censure of Speculative Theology (London, 1962); S. de Laugier de Beaurecueil, Khwadja 'Abdullah Ansari: mystique Hanbalite (Beirut, 1965), pp. 204-21.

12. Hans K√ľng, Christianity and the World Religions (London, 1984), p. 25.

13. For the centrality of the Qur'an to Ibn 'Arabi, consider C.-A. Gilis, Le Coran et la fonction d'Hermes (Paris, 1984). Cf. James Morris: ''Nor can one study any work of his for long without developing a transformed awareness of and sensitivity to the words and deeper dimensions of the Qur'an'' (''Ibn 'Arabi and his interpreters'', p. 551).

14. Jean Calmard, ''Les rituals shiites et le pouvoir: l'imposition du shiisme Safavide: eulogies et maledictions canoniques'', in Jean Calmard (ed.), Etudes Safavides (Paris and Tehran, 1993), pp. 109-50.

15. For aspects of takfir see Frank Griffel, Apostasie und Toleranz im Islam: Die Entwicklung zu al-Gazilis Urteil gegen die Philosophie und die Reaktionen der Philosophen (Leiden, 2000); for the Mu'tazilite enthusiasm for takfir see pp. 151-64.

16. For the use of this hadith, see the traditional treatment by Mohammed Hashim Kamali, Principles of Islamic Jurisprudence, 3rd edn (Cambridge, 2003), pp. 228-63.

17. Hadith in Tirmidhi, Fitan, 7.

18. Josef van Ess, The Flowering of Muslim Theology (Cambridge, MA, 2006), p.43.

19. Van Ess (ibid., p. 142) attributes the ta'dib al-'imma principle to Iranian, not ''indigenous'', Islamic sources.

20. Muhammad al-Sakhiwi, al-Maqasid al-Hasana fi bayin kathirin min al-ahidith al-mushtahira 'ala'l-alsina, ed. M. al-Khusht (Beirut, 1405/ 1985), p. 332.

21. Abu Ja'far Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari, The Commentary on the Qur'an, tr. J. Cooper (Oxford, 1987), pp. 77, 78; and, Jami' al-baycin 'an ta'wil iyi al-Qur'an, ed. M. and A. Shakir (Cairo, 1374 ah), iii, p. 142 (to Qur'an 2:143).

22. Marmura, ''Ghazali and Ash'arism revisited'', p. 103.

23. Khaled El-Rouayheb, ''From Ibn Hajar al-Haytami (d. 1566) to Khayr al-Din al-Alusi (d. 1899): changing conceptions of Ibn Taymiyya amongst Sunni scholars'', in Mohammed S. Ahmed and Yosef Rapoport (eds.), Ibn Taymiyya and His Times (Oxford, 2008).

24. Yahya Michot, ''La pandemie avicennienne au VIe/XIIe siecle'', Arabica 40 (1993), pp- 288-344.

25. Dimitri Gutas, ''The heritage of Avicenna: the golden age of Arabic philosophy, 1000-c. 1350'', in Jules Janssens and Daniel De Smet (eds.), Avicenna and His Heritage (Leuven, 2002), pp. 81-97.

26. Wisnovsky, Avicenna's metaphysics, pp. 16, 145-80. For a challenge to this view see the review by Allan Back in Ars Disputandi, <www.>, 5 (2005).

27. Wisnovsky, Avicenna's Metaphysics, p. 15.

28. Robert Wisnovsky, ''One aspect of the Avicennian turn in Sunni theology'', Arabic Sciences and Philosophy 14 (2004), p. 65.

29. Mecdi Mehmed Efendi, Hada'iq al-Saqa'iq (Istanbul, 1269 Ah), p. 165. However, after the fifteenth century, references to Ottoman ulema reading independent falsafa works are very unusual.

30. Daniel Tanguay, Leo Strauss: une biographie intellectuelle (Paris, 2003), pp. 88-9.

31. Gutas, ''The heritage of Avicenna'', p. 20 (emphasis in original).

32. Sa'd al-Din al-Taftazani, in Muslih al-Din Mustafa al-Qastallani (Molla Kestelli), Hashiyat al-Kestelli 'ala Sharh al-'aqa'id (Istanbul, 1326 ah), p. 17. _ _

33. Shihadeh, ''From al-Ghazali to al-Razi'', p. 175: falsafa and kalam ''came to be as if one and the same discipline''.

34. Taneli Kukkonen, ''Possible worlds in the Tahafut al-Falasifa: al-Ghazali on creation and contingency", Journal of the History of Philosophy 38 (2000), p. 484.

35. The idea that kalam advocated an arbitrary God whose possible actions are not bound by logic, as in the Zahirite theology of Ibn Hazm, is dismissed by Kukkonen, ibid., p. 493, in connection with Ghazali's thought.

36. Jules Janssens, ''Al-Ghazzali's Tahafut: is it really a rejection of Avicenna's philosophy?'', Journal of Islamic Studies 12 (2001), pp. 1-17.

37. Michael E. Marmura, ''Ghazali and Demonstrative Science'', Journal of the History of Philosophy 3 (1965), pp. 183-204.

38. Tony Street, ''Arabic logic'', in Dov M. Gabbay and John Woods (eds.), Handbook of the History of Logic, i (Amsterdam, etc., 2004), p. 527.

39. Khaled El-Rouayheb, ''Sunni Muslim scholars on the status of logic, 1500-1800'', in Islamic Law and Society 11 (2004), pp. 213-32.

40. Shihadeh, ''From al-Ghazali to al-Razi'', p. 147.

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