Notes

1. Parallel texts in the Qur'an: 3:47, 59; 6:73; 16:40; 36:82; 40:68.

2. Ghazali: The Ninety-Nine Beautiful Names of God, tr. David B. Burrell and Nazih Daher (Cambridge, 1992).

3. Summa Theologiae 1.1. Prol.

4. Robert Sokolowski, God of Faith and Reason (Notre Dame, IN, 1982; Washington, DC, 1990); see David Burrell, ''The Christian distinction celebrated and expanded'', in The Truthful and the Good: Essays in Honor of Robert Sokolowski, ed. John Drummond and James Hart (Dordrecht, 1996), pp. 191-206.

5. Ian Netton, Allah Transcendent: Studies in the Structure and Semiotics of Islamic Philosophy, Theology and Cosmology (London, 1989), p. 22. For a critical appreciation of this massively erudite treatise which also calls attention to its pointedness, see Richard Taylor's review in Middle East Journal 44 (1990), pp. 521-2.

6. My source here is Richard Frank's detailed account, ''Kalam and philosophy: a perspective from one problem'', in Parviz Morewedge (ed.), Islamic Philosophical Theology (Albany, 1979), pp. 71-95, with abundant references to primary sources.

8. Daniel Gimaret, La doctrine d'al-Ash'ari (Paris, 1990), p.443. On this significant difference, see Richard M. Frank, ''Two Islamic views of human agency'', in George Makdisi et al. (eds.), La notion de libertee au moyen age: Islam, Byzance, Occident (Paris, 1985), pp. 37-49.

10. Richard M. Frank, ''Moral obligation in classical Islamic theology'', Journal of Religious Ethics 11 (1983), pp. 204-23, esp. p. 218 n. 19, with Gimaret's rejoinder in La doctrine, p. 371, n. 1.

11. Richard M. Frank, ''The structure of created causality according to al-Ash'an'', Studia Islamica 25 (1966), pp. 13-76; citations at pp. 44, 43.

12. Christian van Nispen tot Sevenaer, Activité humaine et agir de Dieu: le concept de ''Sunan de Dieu'' dans le commentaire coranique du Manàr (Beirut, 1996), p. 367. The author signals a key article by Michael Schwarz, ''Acquisition [kasb] in Early Kalam'', in Islamic Philosophy and the Classical Tradition: Essays presented to Richard Walzer (Oxford, 1972), pp. 355-87; as well as Richard M. Frank's review of Gimaret's Theories (see next note) in Biblioteca Orientalis 39 (1982), cols. 705-15.

13. For references to this and other sources, see Daniel Gimaret, Theories de l'acte humain en theologie musulmane (Paris, 1980), pp. 175-231; as well as W. Madelung, "al-Maturàdï", in Encyclopedia of Islam, 2nd edn, vi, pp. 846-8.

14. Gimaret, Theories, p. 179.

15. Faràbà on the Perfect State, ed. and tr. Richard Walzer (Oxford, 1985).

16. See the translation by Therese-Anne Druart, ''Le Traite de Fàràbà sur les buts de la Metaphysique d'Aristote'', Bulletin de Philosophie Meedieevale

17. al-Ghazàli, The Incoherence of the Philosophers, ed. and tr. Michael E. Marmura (Provo, UT, 1997).

18. See Barry Kogan, Averroes and the Metaphysics of Causation (Albany, 1985).

19. Richard McCarthy's translation and notes have been reissued as Ghazàli's Path to Sufism (Louisville, KY, 2000).

20. Ghazalà, Deliverer, in McCarthy, Ghazàli's Path, p. 26.

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