1. E.g. Ibn 'Arabi, Fusils al-hikam, ed. Abu'l-'Ala' 'Aftf! (Beirut, 1365/1946), pp. 122, 178. Ibn 'Arab! also on occasion speaks of ''the deity conditioned by dogma'' (al-ilah al-mu'taqad); M. Chodkiewicz, An Ocean Without Shore: Ibn 'Arabi, the Book and the Law (Albany, 1993), p. 128.

2. ''Locution theopathique'' is the term of the French scholar Louis Massignon, though interestingly ''theopathy''/''theopathetic'' is attested in English as early as the eighteenth century. Louis Massignon, Essay on the Origins of the Technical Language of Islamic Mysticism, tr. Benjamin Clark (Notre Dame, 1997), pp. xxiii-xxiv. For an introduction to the idea of shath, see Carl Ernst, Words of Ecstasy in Sufism (Albany, 1985), pp. 9ff.

3. Muhammad al-Niffari, The Mawaqif and Mukhatabat, ed. and tr. Arthur J. Arberry (Cambridge, 1978), pp. 158, 183; 154, 176.

4. Louis Massignon, The Passion of al-Hallaj: Mystic and Martyr of Islam, tr. H. Mason (Princeton, 1982), p. 316. Apophasis is a major concern in the thought of Hallaj.

5. The saying is often quoted by Sufis; e.g. Abu Nasr al-Sarraj, Kitab al-Luma', tr. Reynold Alleyne Nicholson (London, 1914), p. 36; Ibn 'Arabi, FusHs, p. 62. The idea is also found in a whispered prayer (munaja) attributed to 'Ala Zayn al-'Abidan (d. 713/4): ''Thou hast assigned to Thy creatures no way to know Thee save incapacity to know Thee!'' Zayn al-'Abidan 'Ali ibn al-Husayn, tr. William C. Chittick, The Psalms of Islam: al-Sahifa al-Kamila al-Sajjadiyya (London, 1988), p. 253.

6. A favourite basis for the division in the Qur'an was the story of Moses' encounter with the servant of God ''whom We had given knowledge from Ourselves'', identified on Ubayy ibn Ka'b's authority with the immortal figure al-Khidr (''the Green One''). Moses' understanding is confounded by the strange actions of this wisdom figure, until he finally rejects Moses: ''This is the parting of the ways between me and you'' (18: 64-82). An example of the division in hadith is the saying of the Companion Abua Hurayra: ''I guard two receptacles from God's Messenger; as for the first of them, I have distributed it. As for the other, were I to distribute it this throat of mine would be slit'' (Bukhari, 'Ilm, 61).

7. ''Verily, as for those who have broken the unity of their religion ...'' (6:159); and in the hadith: ''No monasticism in Islam!'' Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Qurtubi, al-jami' li-ahkim al-Qur'in (Cairo, 1387/1967), xviii, p. 87 (to Qur'an 61:10).

9. Massignon, p. 132, citing a quotation from Basri in al-Ghazili, Abu Himid, Ihya' 'ulum al-din (Cairo: 1312/1894), ii, p. 21.

10. Ignaz Goldziher, Introduction to Islamic Theology and Law, tr. A. and R. Hamori (Princeton, 1981), p. 87.

12. Wilferd Madelung, Religious Trends in Early Islamic Iran (Albany, 1988), p. 46.

13. Massignon, Essay, p. 185; Ali Hasan Abdel-Kader, The Life, Personality and Writings of al-Junayd (London, 1976), pp. 28-9.

14. Florian Sobieroj, 'The Mu'tazila and Sufism', in Frederick de Jong and Bernd Radtke (eds.), Islamic Mysticism Contested (Leiden, 1999), p. 72.

16. Ar. sawma'a, pl. sawimi'. The term is qur'anic. Qur'an 22:40 refers to ''monasteries (sawimi'), churches, synagogues and mosques in which God's Name is abundantly extolled''.

18. As reported by 'Abd al-Ra'uf al-Muniwi, al-Kawikib al-Durriyya fi tarajim al-Sida al-Sufiyya (Cairo: 1357/1938), i, p. 238.

19. Gerhard Bowering, The Mystical Vision of Existence in Classical Islam: The Qur'inic Hermeneutics of the Sufi Sahl al-Tustari (d. 283/896) (Berlin, 1980), p. 49.

21. 'Abdal-Qihiral-Baghdadi, al-Farqbayn al-fiiaq (Beirut, 1393/1973), p. 247.

22. Note, however, that many of the followers of the Sialimiyya were Mialikii.

23. Bowering, Mystical Vision, p. 95. This seems to evoke the famous Hanbalite doctrine that the pronunciation of the Qur'an is uncreated.

24. Tustari, in Bowering, Mystical Vision, p. 167.

25. In Massignon's usage, the term means something like ''active experience''. See Benjamin Clark's introduction to Massignon, Essay, p. xxv.

27. So described, for instance, by Sam'ani in his Kitib al-Ansab.

28. A list of pro-Karrimi scholars from the third Islamic century to the sixth is given by Massignon, Essay, pp. 178-9.

29. See Sara Sviri, ''Hakim Tirmidhi and the Malamati movement in early Sufism'', in Leonard Lewisohn (ed.), Classical Persian Sufism: From Its Origins to Ruumi (London, 1993), pp. 583-613.

30. Michel Chodkiewicz, Seal of the Saints: Prophethood and Sainthood in the Sufism of Ibn 'Arab! (Cambridge, 1993), p. 172.

31. E.g. Bistimi, cited in Sarrij, Kitib al-Luma' pp. 382, 384, 387.

32. Eminent representatives of Mu'tazilism like Jubba'i, Zamakhshari and the Qadi 'Abd al-Jabbar ibn Ahmad (al-Mughni fi abwib al-tawhid wa'l-'adl, xv, ed. M. al-Khudayri and M.M. Qasim (Cairo, 1965), pp. 270ff.) attacked al-Halliaj's miracles as charlatanry.

34. The normal Muslim term for the Christian doctrine of incarnation is hulHl, in line with the fact that in Christian Arabic the verb hall (''to be infused'') is sometimes used for the descent of the Word into human form. However, the technical term ''Incarnation'' in Christian Arabic is ta'annus or tajassud.

35. Massignon, Essay, pp. 52iff.

36. Mansur al-Hallaj, The Tawasin, tr. Aisha al-Tarjumana (Berkeley and London, 1974), p. 46.

37. Massignon, Passion, 111, p.45. From a quotation in Baqli's Sharh al-shathiyyat.

38. Abdel Kader, p. 90. Amended translation.

40. Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya, Madarij al-salikan, ed. Muhammad Kamal Ja'far (Beirut, 1980-2002).

41. Sviri, ''Hakim Timidhi'', pp. 592-6 . A legacy of the pre-compilatory distinction is that some later authorities still differentiate, within Sufism, the SUfiyya and the Malamatiyya, and tend to assert the superiority of the latter; e.g. Abu Hafs al-Suhrawardi, 'Awarif al-ma'arif.

42. Arthur J. Arberry (tr.), The Doctrine of the Sufis (Cambridge, 1977), p. xiv.

43. Arent Jan Wensinck, The Muslim Creed: Its Genesis and Historical Development (Cambridge: 1932), p. 246.

44. W. Montgomery Watt, Islamic Creeds: A Selection (Edinburgh, 1994), p. 62.

49. See above, chapter 7.

50. Abu Hamid al-Ghazali, Lettre au disciple (Ayyuha al-Walad), ed. and tr. into French by Toufic Sabbagh (Beirut, 1969), p. 55.

51. Cited in C. Ernst, Ruzbihan Baqli (Richmond, 1996), pp. 40-1.

53. Sufi texts are explicit on the difference between catechismic and transcendentalised doctrine. E.g. ''You must rectify your religious creed ('aqida) to bring it into line with the doctrine of the initiates'' (Ibn 'Ata' Allah al-Iskandari, The Key to Salvation: A Sufi Manual of Invocation, tr. Mary Ann Koury-Danner (Cambridge, 1996), p. 104).

54. Ghazall, Lettre au disciple, p. 37.

55. Abu Hamid al-Ghazali, The Niche of Lights, tr. David Buchman (Provo, UT, 1998), p. 16.

57. Michot, J. ''La pandemie avicennienne au VIe/XIIe siecle'', Arabica 40 (i993), pp. 287-344.

58. Claude Addas, Quest for the Red Sulphur: The Life of Ibn 'Arabl, tr. Peter Kingsley (Cambridge, 1993), pp. 107-8.

59. 'Afaf 'Usayran, introduction to 'Ayn al-Qudat Hamadhana, Tamhadat, ed. 'A. 'Usayran (Tehran, 1962), pp. 66-77.

60. Miguel Asín y Palacios, The Mystical Philosophy of Ibn Masaría and His Followers, tr. Elmer Douglas and Howard Yoder (Leiden, 1978).

61. Kamal Ibrahim Ja'far, ''Min mu'allafat Ibn Masarra al-mafquda'', Majallat Kulliyyat al-Tarbiyya, hi (1972), pp. 27-63.

62. William C. Chittick, ''Rumi and wahdat al-wujUd'', in Amin Banani, Richard Hovanissian and Georges Sabagh (eds.), Poetry and Mysticism in Islam: the Heritage of Rumi (Cambridge, 1994), p. 82.

63. Sadr al-Din Qunawi, al-Murasalat bayna Sadr al-Din al-QUnawi wa-Nasir al-Din al-TUsi, ed. G. Schubert (Beirut, 1995).

64. Nicholas Heer (tr.), The Precious Pearl: al-Jami's al-Durrah al-Fakhirah with the Commentary of 'Abd al-Ghafur al-Lari (Albany, 1979), p. 57.

65. See Abu 'Ali Ibn Sina, al-Isharat wa'l-tanbihat (Cairo, 1957-60), iii, pp. 447ff.

67. Qur'an 41:53, quoted in Ibn Sina, iii, pp.482-3.

68. Hermann Landolt, ''Ghazali and 'Religionswissenschaft': some notes on the Mishkat al-Anwar for Professor Charles J. Adams'', Asiatische Studien/Etudes Asiatiques 45 (1991), p. 51, n. 125.

70. 'Ali al-Hujwiri, tr. Reynold Alleyne Nicholson, Kashf al-mahjub: The Oldest Persian Treatise on Sufiism (Leiden and London, 1911), p. 374.

71. 'Abd al-Razzaaq Qaashaanai, tr. N. Safwat, rev. D. Pendlebury, A Glossary of Sufi Technical Terms (London, 1991), pp. 80-1 (Arabic); pp. 57-8 (English).

72. Ahmad ibn 'Ali al-Maqqari, ed. Reinhart Dozy et al., Analectes sur l'histoire et la literature des arabes d'Espagne (Leiden, 1855-61), i, p. 567.

74. Ignaz Goldziher, The Zahiris: Their Doctrine and Their History, tr. W. Behn (Leiden, 1971), p. 170.

75. Mahmoud al-Ghorab, ''Muhyiddin Ibn al-'Arabi amidst religions (adyan) and schools of thought (madhaahib)'', in Stephen Hirtenstein and Michael Tiernan (eds.), Muhyiddin Ibn 'Arabi: A Commemorative Volume (Shaftesbury, 1993), p. 200; Michel Chodkiewicz, An Ocean Without Shore: Ibn 'Arabi, the Book and the Law (Albany, 1993), pp. 55ff.

78. Chodkiewicz, Ocean, p. 37.

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