I would like to thank Dr Aron Zysow for his helpful comments on a draft of this chapter.

1. See, for example, Ignaz Goldziher, Muslim Studies, ed. S. M. Stern, tr. C.R. Barber and S. M. Stern (London, 1967-71).

2. Omaima Abu Bakr, ''Teaching the Words of the Prophet: Women Instructors of the Hadith (Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries),'' Hawwa 1/3 (2003), pp. 306-28.

3. There were also state-funded institutions, such as the Isma'lll Dar al-Hikma in eleventh-century Cairo.

4. For an explanation of the differences between these terms, see Leonor E. Fernandes, The Evolution of a Sufi Institution in Mamluk Egypt: The Khanqah (Berlin, 1988), ch. 3.

5. Kullu mujtahid muslb; see Josef van Ess, The Flowering of Muslim Theology, tr. Jane Marie Todd (Cambridge, MA, 2006), p. 20.

6. Shams al-DIn al-DhahabI, Siyar a'lam al-nubala', ed. Shu'ayb al-Arna'ut and Muhammad al-'Arqasusl (Beirut, 1413/1992), x, p. 28.

7. Sherman A. Jackson, On the Boundaries of Theological Tolerance in Islam: Abu Hamid al-Ghazali's Faysal al-Tafriqa bayna al-Islam wa'l-zandaqa (Karachi, 2002).

8. Abu Hlmid al-GhazIll, Haqaqat al-qawlayn (MS, Princeton University, Yahuda 4358, fols. 3b-4a).

9. Roy P. Mottahedeh, The Mantle of the Prophet: Religion and Politics in Iran (New York, 1985).

10. Van Ess, Theologie und Gesellschaft, iv.

11. See, for example, Richard W. Bulliet, The Patricians of Nishapur: A Study in Medieval Islamic Social History (Cambridge, MA, 1972); and Ira M. Lapidus, Muslim Cities in the Later Middle Ages (Cambridge and New York, 1984).

12. Christopher Schurman Taylor, In the Vicinity of the Righteous: Ziylra and the Veneration of Muslim Saints in Late Medieval Egypt (Boston,

13. Ahmet T. Karamustafa, God's Unruly Friends: Dervish Groups in the Islamic Later Middle Period, 1200-1550 (Salt Lake City, 1994).

14. See, for example, Esther Peskes, Muhammad b. 'Abdalwahhab (1703-92) im Widerstreit: Untersuchungen zur Rekonstruktion der Frühgeschichte der Wahhabaya (Beirut, 1993).

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