1. William C. Chittick, ''Death and the world of imagination: Ibn 'Arabi's eschatology'', Muslim World 78 (1988), p. 51.
2. Ibid., passim; cf. Abu Hamid al-Ghazali, Deliverance from Error, tr. W. Montgomery Watt as The Faith and Practice of al-Ghazzali (London, 1953), p. 24.
3. Cf. Annemarie Schimmel, Mystical Dimensions of Islam (Chapel Hill, NC, 1975), p. 189.
4. Ibn Sina, al-Risala al-Adhawiyya, tr. Francesca Lucchetta as Epistola sulla vita futura (Padua, 1969), p. 19.
6. Abu Hamid al-Ghazali, The Remembrance of Death and the Afterlife: Book XL of the Revival of the Religious Sciences, tr. T. J. Winter (Cambridge, 1989), pp. 135-47.
7. A. J. Wensinck, The Muslim Creed: Its Genesis and Historical Development (Cambridge, 1932), pp. 117-21; Ragnar Eklund, Life between Death and Resurrection according to Islam (Uppsala, 1941); 'Abd Allah al-Baydawi, Tawali' al-anwar min matali' al-anzar, tr. by Edwin E. Calverley and James W. Pollock, as Nature, Man and God in Medieval Islam (Leiden, 2002), ii, pp. 1078-81.
8. Qur'an 36:66; 37:23-4; 101:6-11; cf. Ghazali, Remembrance, pp. 217-18.
9. Ibid., pp. 222, 237; cf. T. O'Shaughnessy, 'The seven names for hell in the Qur'an'', Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 24 (1961), pp. 444-69.
10. Sevener Fatimid and Isma'il! theology upholds the need for a living guide (imam) to be present in the community, although some indications of cyclic fulfilment or high points are present.
11. Said Amir Arjomand, The Shadow of God and the Hidden Imam: Religion, Political Order and Societal Change in Shi'ite Iran from the Beginning to 1890 (Chicago, 1984).
12. Cf. Abdulaziz Sachedina, Islamic Messianism: The Idea of the Mahda in Twelver Shi'ism (Albany, 1981).
13. Possibly referred to in Qur'an 27:82.
14. Or earthquakes, in some interpretations.
15. Mentioned in Qur'an 18:94; 21:96; apparently a reference to Gog and Magog.
16. Muslim, Fitan, 128. As recounted in Imam al-Haddad, The Lives of Man (London, 1991), p. 51.
17. Qur'an 3:185. For more on the second coming, see Yvonne Y. Haddad and Jane I. Smith, The Islamic Understanding of Death and Resurrection (Albany, 1981), pp. 69-70.
18. Ghazall, Remembrance of Death, pp. 210-16.
19. Richard C. Martin, Mark R. Woodward and Dwi S. Atmaja, Defenders of Reason in Islam: Mu'tazilism from Medieval School to Modern Symbol (Oxford, 1997), pp. 103-4, 126-8.
20. Hadith in BukharT, Tawhid, 15.
21. Al-GhazalT, Remembrance of Death, p. 251.
22. Georges Anawati, Etudes de philosophie musulmane (Paris, 1974), pp. 263-89.
24. Muhammad Iqbal, Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam, (Lahore, i960), p. i23.
25. Sachiko Murata, The Tao of Islam: A Sourcebook on Gender Relationships in Islamic Thought (Albany, 1992), pp. 195-6.
26. Muslim, aImaan, 297.
27. Ibrahim Lutpi, ''The problem of the vision of God in the theology of az-Zamakhshari and al-Baidawi'', Die Welt des Orients 13 (1982), pp. 107-113; A. K. Tuft, ''The ru'ya controversy and the interpretation of Qur'an vii:i43", Hamdard Islamicus 6 (1983), pp. 3-41.
28. For Muslim understandings of Judaism see Camilla Adang, Muslim Writers on Judaism and the Hebrew Bible: From Ibn Rabban to Ibn Hazm (New York: 1996).
29. Qur'an 9:31; for many scholars Christians were therefore idol-worshippers (ashab al-awthan); see Ibn Hajar al-'AsqalanT, Fath al-Bari Sharh Sahah al-Bukhari (Cairo, 1959), xxiv, p. 269.
31. Wadi Z. Haddad, ''A tenth-century speculative theologian's refutation of the basic doctrines of Christianity: al-Baqillani (d. ad 1013)'', in Yvonne Yazbeck Haddad and Wadi Z. Haddad (eds.), Christian-Muslim Encounters (Gainesville, 1995), pp. 82-94.
32. Cited in Tim Winter, ''The last trump card: Islam and the supersession of other faiths'', Studies in Interreligious Dialogue 9 (1999), pp. 149-50.
Cambridge University Press
978-0-521-78549-5 - The Cambridge Companion to Classical Islamic Theology
Edited by Tim Winter
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