1. In this chapter, ''jurist'' stands for a scholar of Islamic positive law (faqih); ''jurisconsult'' stands for a jurist trained to issue special legal opinions for individual cases (mufti); and ''jurisprudent'' is used for a scholar of Islamic legal theory (usula).

2. David Santillana, Istituzioni di diritto musulmano Malichita con riguardo anche al sistema Sciafiita (Rome, 1926), 1, p. 5.

3. Henri de Wael, Le droit Musulman: nature et evolution (Paris, 1989), p. 52.

4. Noel J. Coulson, Conflicts and Tensions in Islamic Jurisprudence (Chicago, 1969), pp. 80-5.

5. John Henry Merryman, The Civil Law Tradition: An Introduction to the Legal Systems of Western Europe and Latin America (Stanford, 1969), pp. 15-17.

6. In the wake of the Mu'tazilite-inspired Inquisition under Ma'mun, and the subsequent institutional consolidation of the schools of law, Muslim jurists assumed authority over Islamic religious discourse and legal institutions. Through subsequent centuries, this disparate and non-centralised body of men continued to exercise virtually exclusive religious authority at the expense of the state (see Devin J. Stewart, Islamic Legal Orthodoxy: Twelver Shiite Responses to the Sunni Legal System (Salt Lake City, 1998), p. 1). The rift between the political and religious establishments in Islam left a legacy of crisis over political legitimacy. There were notable exceptions, such as the Ottoman Empire, but most Muslim polities were plagued by their endemic need for political legitimacy in the absence of religious endorsement. See Antony Black, The History of Islamic Political Thought: From the Prophet to the Present (New York, 2001), pp. 23-4, 30, 33, 38.

7. Austin B. Creel, Dharma in Hindu Ethics (Calcutta, 1977), pp. 1-3; and Ariel Glucklich, The Sense of Adharma (New York and Oxford, 1994), pp. 3, 7-9.

8. See Mario Bretone, Geschichte des römischen Rechts: Von den Anfangen bis zu Justinian (Munich, 1987), pp. 81-4; Michael Gagarin, Early Greek Law (Berkeley, 1986), pp. 1, 15-16.

9. Ze'ev W. Falk, ''Jewish law and medieval canon law'', in Bernard S. Jackson (ed.), Jewish Law in Legal History and the Modern World (Leiden, 1980), p. 78.

10. Philip S. Alexander, ''Jewish law in the time of Jesus: towards a clarification of the problem'', in Barnabas Lindars (ed.), Law and Religion: Essays on the Place of the Law in Israel and Early Christianity by Members of the Ehrhardt Seminar of Manchester University (Cambridge, 1988), p. 44.

11. Roger Tomes, ''A perpetual statute throughout your generations'', in ibid., p. 20.

12. F. F. Bruce, ''Paul and the law in recent research'', in ibid., pp. 115-18.

13. Timo Veijola, ''Der Dekalog bei Luther und in der heutigen Wissenschaft'', in ibid., pp. 66-7.

15. Hubert Kaufhold, Die Rechtssammlung des Gabriel von Basra unter ihr Verhaltnis zu den anderen juristischen Sammelwerken der Nestorianer (Berlin, 1976), pp. 5-8, 13-4.

17. Coulson, Conflicts and Tensions, p. 80-5.

18. H. A. R. Gibb and Harold Bowen, Islamic Society and the West (Toronto, 1957), pp. 9-10.

19. Joseph Schacht, An Introduction to Islamic Law (Oxford, 1964), p. 200.

20. Umar F. Abd-Allah, ''Innovation and creativity in Islamic law'', <>, accessed October 2006, pp. 6-7.

21. Bernard Weiss, The Spirit of Islamic Law (Athens, GA, 1998), p. 89.

22. Santillana, Istituzioni, 1, p. 55.

23. Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya, I'lam al-muwaqqi'in in (Beirut, 1998), 111, p. 5. In Arabic, the maxim reads: ''la yunkaru taghayyur al-ahkam ma'a taghayyur al-azman''. Ibn Qayyim parses it by adding: ''in accordance with changing times, places, circumstances, intentions, and customary practices''.

24. 'All ibn al-Qassar, al-Muqaddima fi'l-Usul (Beirut, 1996), pp. 114-15; Abu'l-Walld al-Baji, Ihkam al-Fusul (Beirut, 1995), 11, pp. 714-16.

25. Abd-Allah, ''Innovation and creativity in Islamic law'', pp. 8-9.

26. See George Makdisi, The Rise of Colleges: Institutions of Learning in Islam and the West (Edinburgh, 1981), pp. 4, 290; Wael B. Hallaq, A History of Islamic Legal Theories: An Introduction to Sunni Usual al-Fiqh (Cambridge, 1999), pp. 201-2 and n. 59; Christopher Melchert,

The Formation of the Sunni Schools of Law, 9th-ioth Centuries ce (Leiden, 1997), pp. 16-17.

27. Fazlur Rahman, ''Functional interdependence of law and theology'', in G.E. von Grunebaum (ed.), Theology and Law in Islam (Wiesbaden, 1971), pp. 89-97, at pp. 89-90.

28. Joseph Schacht, ''Theology and law in Islam'', in ibid., pp. 3-24, at p. 4.

29. Ulrich Rudolph, Al-Maturidi und die Sunnitische Theologie in Samarkand (Leiden, 1997), pp. 25-6, 29-30, 84-5, 354, 357; Mustafa Ceric, Roots of Synthetic Theology in Islam: A Study of the Theology of Abu Mansur al-Mituridi (d. 333/944) (Kuala Lumpur, 1995), p. 11.

30. Kevin A. Reinhart, ''Like the difference between heaven and earth: Hanafi and Shafi'i discussions of fard and wajib in theology and usul'', in Bernard G. Weiss, ed., Studies in Islamic Legal Theory (Leiden, 2002), pp. 205-34, at pp. 205, 225, 230.

31. Fazlur Rahman, Islam, 2nd edn (Chicago, 2002), p. 51.

32. Abrahamov defines ''traditionist'' as a scholar of hadith, and a ''traditionalist'' as one who regards religious and theological truth as strictly revelatory and directly derivative, often in a literalistic fashion, from the Qur'an, Sunna and Consensus: Binyamin Abrahamov, Islamic Theology: Traditionalism and Rationalism (Edinburgh: 1998), p.ix.

35. For definitions and illustrations of these instruments of law and the divergent attitudes of the principal Sunni schools toward them, see Umar F. Abd-Allah, ''Malik's concept of 'amal in the light of Miliki legal theory'', 2 vols. (PhD thesis, University of Chicago, 1978), i, pp. 209-85.

36. Muhammad Ma'ruf al-Dawalibi, al-Madkhal ila 'ilm usul al-fiqh (Beirut, 1965), p. 174.

37. Santillana, Istituzioni, i, pp. 55-7.

38. See Wolfhart P. Heinrichs, ''Qawa'id as a genre of legal literature'', in Weiss, Studies, pp. 365-84, at pp. 367-8, 371.

39. Abrahamov, Islamic Theology, p. x.

41. See Abd-Allah, ''Malik's concept of 'amal'', i, pp. 209-85.

42. Sherman A. Jackson, ''Fiction and formalism: towards a functional analysis of usual al-fiqh'', in Weiss, Studies, p. 184.

43. See Yvon Linant de Bellefonds, Traite de droit musulman compare (Paris, 1965), i, pp. 7-9.

44. Muhammad al-'Arusi 'Abd al-Qadir, al-Masa'il al-mushtaraka bayna usual al-fiqh wa-usul al-din (Jeddah, 1410/1990), p. 12.

45. Rahman, ''Functional interdependence'', p. 90.

49. Rahman, ''Functional interdependence'', p. 91.

51. See Kevin Reinhart, Before Revelation: The Boundaries of Muslim Moral Thought (Albany, 1995).

52. 'Abd al-Qadir, Masa'il, pp. 12-13, 70-1, 94-5, 132-48.

53. Ahmad ibn Idris al-Qarafi, Sharh tanqih al-fusUl fi'l-usUl (Cairo, 1306 ah), pp. 41-2.

55. Rudolph, Al-Matuiidi, pp. 296, 298; cf. Ceric, Roots, p. 127.

57. Muhammad ibn Jarlr al-Tabarl, Jami' al-bayan 'an ta'wil ai al-Qur'an (Beirut, 1995), vi, pp. 150-1.

58. 'Ala al-Qari, Mirqat al-mafatih (Mecca, n.d.), i, p. 283.

59. Muhammad al-Ghazali, Ihya' 'ulum al-din (Damascus, n.d.), i, p. 77.

60. Santillana, Istituzioni, i, pp. 6-7.

61. Melchert, Formation, p.xiii.

62. Muhammad al-'Arabi al-DarqawI, Majmu'at rasa'il Abi 'Abd Allah Muhammad al-'Arabi al-Darqawi (Casablanca, n.d.), p. 47.

63. In 'Abd al-Wahhab al-Sha'rani, al-Tabaqat al-kubra al-musamma bi-lawaqih al-anwar fi tabaqat al-akhyar (Beirut, 1408/1988), i, p. 4.

64. William C. Chittick, Faith and Practice of Islam: Three Thirteenth-Century Sufi Texts (Albany, 1992), pp.xii-xiii, 168-70.

66. Sha'ranl, 'Abd al-Wahhab, al-Tabaqat al-kubra (Cairo, 1965), i, p. 6.

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