1. Abu Hamid al-GhazIlI, al-Mustasfa min 'ilm al-usul, ed. Ibrahim Muhammad Ramadan (Beirut, 1414/1994), i, p. 737; cf. al-Ghazali, al-Iqtisad fi'l-i'tiqad, ed. Ibrahim Agah Cubukcu and Huseyin Atay (Ankara, 1962), p. 114.
2. ''Il'' is prefixed to negate ''locution'' to show that il-locutions are actions that speakers perform with locutions. In the area of linguistics known as pragmatics a distinction is thus drawn between the locutionary act (what is said or asserted) and the illocutionary force (how the speaker intended what was said to be taken: as a statement, a command, a threat, a promise, etc.). Cf. J. L. Austin, How to Do Things with Words (Cambridge, MA, 1962).
3. John Lyons, Semantics (Cambridge, 1977), 11, p. 731.
9. Cf. Abu Bakr al-Biqillam, Kitab al-Tamhid, ed. Richard J. McCarthy (Beirut, 1957), pp. 7-14.
11. Cf. Wael B. Hallaq, A History of Islamic Legal Theories: An Introduction to Sunni usUl al-fiqh (Cambridge, 1997), pp. 39ff.
12. al-Ghazali, Mi'yar al-'ilm fi fann al-mantiq (Beirut, 1983), p.43.
13. E.g. the qur'anic verse 6:141: ''Pay the due thereof upon the harvest day'', which is contextualised by specifying that what is due is a tenth thereof; Ghazala, Mustasfa, i, pp. 675-6.
14. E.g. the verse ''The heavens are rolled up in His right hand'', which is put in context by the hadith, ''The heart of the believer is between two fingers of the fingers of the All-Merciful God''; ibid., i, p. 676.
15. al-Ghazali, Ihyi' 'ulum al-din, ed. Abu Hafs ibn 'Imrin (Cairo, 1419/ 1998), iv, p. 351.
16. al-GhazalT, Faysal al-tafriqa bayna al-Islam wa'l-zandaqa, ed. Sulayman Dunya (Cairo, 1381/1961), p. 77. Cf. Sherman Jackson, al-Ghazali's Faysal al-tafriqa bayna al-Islam wa'l-zandaqa: On the Boundaries of Theological Tolerance in Islam (Karachi, 2002), Introduction; and Frank Griffel, ''Al-Ghazali's concept of prophecy: the introduction of Avicennan psychology into Ash'arite theology'', Arabic Sciences and Philosophy 14 (2004), p. 125.
18. See Wael B. Hallaq, Ibn Taymiyya Against the Logicians (Oxford, 1993); and more recently Oliver Leaman, ''Islamic philosophy and the attack on logic'', Topoi 19/1 (2000), pp. 17-24.
19. Ibn Taymiyya, al-Radd 'ala al-mantiqiyyin, ed. Muhammad 'Abd al-Sattar Nassar and 'Imad Khafaj! (Cairo, 1976), i, p. 114.
20. For Ibn Taymiyya's views on faith see Toshihiko Izutsu, The Concept of Belief in Islamic Theology (Tokyo, 1965), pp. 166-79 and passim.
21. Muhammad al-Mawsili, Mukhtasar al-Sawa'iq al-Mursala 'ala'l-Jahmiya wa'l-Mu'attila li'bni'l-Qayyim al-Jawziyya (Beirut, 1405/ 1985).
22. Taqa al-Dm Ahmad Ibn Taymiyya, Majmu'Fatawa, ed. 'Abd al-Rahman ibn Qasim and Muhammad 'Abd al-Rahmin ibn Qasim (Rabat, n.d.), xx, p. 496.
23. In Mawsili, Mukhtasar, p. 272, lines 4-10. Cf. Ibn Taymiyya, Kitab al-Imin, ed. Sayyid Jumayla (Cairo, 1412/1993), pp. 83-4.
24. Mawsila, Mukhtasar, p. 254.
27. Ibn Taymiyya, Muqaddima fi usUl al-tafsir, ed. 'Adnan Zarzür (Beirut, I399/l979l p. 93.
28. Quoted in Ella Almagor, ''The early meaning of Majaz and the nature of Abu 'Ubayda's exegesis'', in Andrew Rippin (ed.), The Qur'an and Its Interpretative Tradition (Aldershot and Burlington, VT, 2001), pp. 309-10. Also see Kamal Abu-Deeb, ''Studies in the Majaz and metaphorical language of the Qur'an: Abu 'Ubayda and al-Sharlf al-Radi'', in Literary Structures of Religious Meaning in the Qur'an, ed. Issa J. Boullata (London, 2000), pp. 310-53.
32. On the linguistic change from Jahiliyya to Islam see Jaroslav Stetkevych, Muhammad and the Golden Bough: Reconstructing Arabian Myth (Bloomington, 1996), pp. 4-7.
36. ''Malakut'' is derived from malik, ''king'', not malak, ''angel''.
37. al-Ghazali, Mishkat al-anwHr, ed. Abu'l-'Ala 'Aflfl (Cairo, 1382/1964), p. 67; English tr. from the same edn by David Buchman, The Niche of Lights (Provo, UT, 1998), p. 27.
41. I avoid the frequent translation of 'arif as ''gnostic'' because such a translation superficially implies an association with an ancient movement with which Ghazala had no known association.
42. Ghazala, Mishkat, pp. 69-70; tr. Buchman, p. 28.
49. Abu Hamid al-Ghazall, al-Maqsad al-Asna fi sharh ma'ani asma' Allah al-husna, ed. Fadlou Shehadi (Beirut, 1971), pp. 21-4.
50. Cf. Pierre Cachia, The Arch-Rhetorician or the Schemer's Skimmer: A Handbook of Late Arabic badl' (Wiesbaden, 1998), p. 89.
52. Abu Hayyan al-Tawhidl, al-Isharat al-Ilahiya, ed. Wadad al-Qadi (Beirut, 1402/1982), p. 6i.
54. 'Abd al-Qadir al-Jaza'iri, Kitab al-Mawaqif (Beirut, 1966), i, p. 26.
55. This is not to say that no ishara ever has legal import. For examples see Ghazali, Mustasfa, 11, pp. 219-21.
56. Ghazali, Mishkat, pp. 73ff.
58. Ibn Taymiyya, Kitab al-Iman, p. 227; cf. also the argument on p. 223.
59. Tafsir Abi'l-'Abbas ibn 'Ata', in Majmu'-e athar-e Abu 'Abd al-Rahman al-Sulami, ed. Nasr al-Din PUrjavadi (Tehran, 1369/1990 or 1991), I, p. 223.
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