Notes

1. For a discussion of theology in relation to and its impact on philosophy see Majid Fakhry, Philosophy, Dogma, and the Impact of Greek Thought in Islam (Aldershot, 1994).

2. An important discussion of the relationship between falsafa and kalam was presented by Averroes (Ibn Rushd), who believed that philosophical investigation should be kept distinct from theological premises. See Averroes, Decisive Treatise and Epistle Dedicatory, tr. Charles E. Butterworth (Provo, UT, 2001).

3. For a comprehensive study of the Isma'Tll doctrines including their philosophical and theological views see Farhad Daftary, The Isma'TlTs: Their History and Doctrines (London, 1990). See also S. M. Stern, Studies in Early Isma'Tlism (Jerusalem, 1983).

4. Muhammad ibn al Nadlm, al-Fihrist (Cairo, n.d.).

5. Ibid., p. 511; also Majid Fakhry, A History of Islamic Philosophy, 2nd edn (New York, 1983), p. 5.

7. The official institution of Bayt al-Hikma was directed by Masawiyah, had a ''keeper'' named Yahya ibn al-BitrTq, and was protected and supported by Ma'mun, whose love of ''ancient wisdom'' led him to send officials to Constantinople and other regions in Byzantium to seek out and purchase books of the ancient sages and scholars. These were then brought to the Academy and translated into Arabic. See Fakhry, History of Islamic Philosophy, pp. i2ff.

8. For a comprehensive presentation of translations from Greek sources to Arabic see Franz Rosenthal, The Classical Heritage in Islam, tr. Emile Marmorstein and Jenny Marmorstein (London, 1975).

9. Fakhry, Philosophy, Dogma.

10. The Aristotelian and other philosophical texts translated are discussed in F. E. Peters, Aristotle and the Arabs: The Aristotelian Tradition in Islam (New York, 1968).

11. See al-Kindi, On First Philosophy, tr. Alfred L. Ivry (Albany, NY, 1974). An excellent account of the crucial set of philosophical questions concerning Kinda and the Mu'tazila is given by P. Adamson, ''Al-Kinda and the Mu'tazila: divine attributes, creation, and freedom'', Arabic Sciences and Philosophy 13 (2003), pp. 45-77.

12. For a discussion of creation and other problems significant in the development of early Islamic philosophy see Herbert Davidson, Proofs for Eternity, Creation, and the Existence of God in Medieval Islamic and Jewish Philosophy (Oxford, 1987).

13. For a general discussion of Kinda's works and philosophical method see George N. Atiyeh, Al-Kindi: The Philosopher of the Arabs (Rawalpindi, 1966).

14. See Shukri Abed, Aristotelian Logic and the Arabic Language in Alfarabi (Albany, NY, 1991).

15. This is one of medieval philosophy's most creative texts. It has not been translated, nor has it as yet been the subject of an analytical study in Western scholarship. The Arabic text represents the apogee of refined technical language; and Faraba's penetrating analysis of being, and of the theoretical foundations of state and religion, set the standard for philosophical expression in Islam. See al-Faraba, Kitab al-Huruf, ed. Muhsin Mahdi (Beirut, 1970).

16. Richard Walzer, Alfarabi on the Perfect State (Oxford, 1985), and Muhsin Mahdi, Alfarabi's Philosophy of Plato and Aristotle, revised edn (Ithaca, 2002).

17. Richard Walzer, On the Perfect State, revised edn (Chicago, 1998).

18. See Hossein Ziai, ''Knowledge and authority in Sha'! philosophy'', in Lynda Clarke (ed.), Shiite Heritage: Essays in Classical and Modern Traditions (Binghamton, NY, 2002), pp. 359-73.

19. See for example Fazlur Rahman, ''Essence and Existence in Avicenna'', in Mediaeval and Renaissance Studies 4 (1958), pp. 1-6, continued in ''Essence and Existence, I: Ibn Sana: the myth and the reality'', in Hamdard Islamicus 4/1 (1981), pp. 3-14. See also Michael E. Marmura, ''Avicenna's proof from contingency for God's existence in the Metaphysics of the Shifa'', Medieval Studies 42 (1980), pp. 337-52.

20. Avicenna's views of a primary and intuitive act of self-identification impact the Illuminationists' famous unified theory of knowledge by presence, and anticipate the Cartesian cogito. See Therese-Anne Druart, ''The soul and the body problem: Avicenna and Descartes'', in ThereseAnne Druart (ed.), Arabic Philosophy and the West: Continuity and Interaction (Washington, DC, 1988), pp. 27-49.

21. See Fazlur Rahman, Prophecy in Islam (London, 1958).

22. Ghazala's text is available in a bilingual edition: The Incoherence of the Philosophers, tr. Michael E. Marmura, 2nd edn (Provo, UT, 2000). His polemical theological views concerning how philosophy should be positioned and studied are discussed by Michael E. Marmura in

''Ghazili and Ash'arism Revisited'', Arabic Sciences and Philosophy 12 (2002), pp. 91-110. Ghazali's doctrinal positions on creation and related problems argued against Avicenna are discussed by Richard M. Frank, Creation and the Cosmic System: Al-Ghazili and Avicenna (Heidelberg, 1992).

23. For a general account of the new Illuminationist system see Hossein Ziai, Knowledge and Illumination: A Study of Suhrawardi's Hikmat al-Ishriq (Atlanta, 1990).

24. The Arabic text of Averroes' Tahafut al-tahifut has been translated by Simon Van Den Bergh, The Incoherence of the Incoherence (London, i969).

25. Ibn Taymiyya attacks the philosophers by paraphrasing their arguments, taken from a host of sources, which he then presents as his own, claiming that they are indications of the heretical positions held by philosophers. His work is a prime example of sophistry, distorting the philosophers' views to serve his own anti-rationalist ideology. See Wael B. Hallaq (tr.), Ibn Taymiyya against the Greek Logicians (Oxford, 1993).

26. Bilal Kuspinar, Isma'il Ankaravi on the Illuminative Philosophy: His Izahu'l-Hikem: Edition and Analysis in Comparison with Dawwani's Shawakil al-Hur, together with the Translation of Suhrawardi's Hayakil al-Nur (Kuala Lumpur, 1996).

27. There are no comprehensive, analytical studies of this work, and to date only the older philosophical study by Fazlur Rahman captures Sadria's stipulated and textually valid philosophical aim. See Fazlur Rahman, The Philosophy of Mulla Sadra (Albany, 1975).

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