30. For the model, see Richard M. Frank, Creation and the Cosmic System: Al-Ghazàli and Avicenna (Heidelberg, 1992); and for an elucidation of sunnat Allah, see Christian van Nispen, Activite humaine, part 1, pp. 57-251.

31. Ghazàli on Faith in Divine Unity and Trust in Divine Providence, tr. David B. Burrell (Louisville, KY, 2001).

32. This term is not qur'anic, nor is it a name of God; cf. L. P. Fitzgerald, ''Creation in al-Tafsii al-Kabir of Fakhr ad-Dm al-Razi'' (PhD dissertation, Australian National University, 1992), p. 34.

33. This assertion regarding the primary meaning of the term ''agent'' reflects the presumption in Ghazili's Ash'arite milieu that identified agency with the activity of creating.

34. For the sense of rida, see Marie-Louise Siauve's translation of the Revival's ''Book of Love'': Le Livre de l'amour, du desir ardent, de l'intimite et du parfait contentement (Paris, 1986), pp. 247-68.

35. This is Ghazali's celebrated claim regarding the universe: that it is ''the best possible'', a claim whose reception has been examined in detail by Eric Ormsby, Theodicy in Islamic Thought (Princeton, NJ, 1984), with a clarifying reprise in ''Creation in Time in Islamic Thought with Special Reference to Ghazili'', in David B. Burrell and Bernard McGinn, God and Creation: An Ecumenical Symposium (Notre Dame, IN, 1990), pp. 246-64. See also Frank, Creation, pp. 60-1.

36. Burrell (tr.), Ghazali on Faith in Divine Unity, p. 276.

37. This is my way of acknowledging Richard Frank's delineation of Ghazali's extensive use of Avicenna (in his Creation and the Cosmic System), while demurring from the necessitarian conclusions he draws in ''Currents and countercurrents'', in Peter Riddell and Tony Street (eds.), Islam: Essays on Scripture, Thought and Society: A Festschrift in Honour of Anthony H. Johns (Leiden, 1997), pp. 113-34.

38. For a detailed treatment of Rizi, complete with sources, see Gimaret, Theories, pp. 134-53.

39. al-Tafsir al-Kabir to 13:122, tr. in Fitzgerald, ''Creation in al-Tafsir al-Kabii'', p. 99.

40. al-Tafsir al-Kabir to 9:159, tr. in ibid., p. 103; Gimaret, Theories, p. 142.

41. al-Tafsir al-Kabir to 2:52, tr. in Gimaret, Theories, p. 153.

42. For Suhrawardi, see John Walbridge and Hossein Ziai's translation and commentary, The Philosophy of Illumination (Provo, UT, 1999), as well as Ziai's study of this book, Knowledge and Illumination (Atlanta, 1990), and John Walbridge, Leaven of the Ancients: Suhrawardi and the Heritage of the Greeks (Albany, 2000).

43. Arnold Davidson has translated key essays of Pierre Hadot in Philosophy as a Way of Life (Oxford, 1995). John Walbridge suggests why Sufi practices tended to eclipse natural philosophy as a path for understanding, in his Leaven of the Ancients, pp. 215-20.

44. Henry Corbin, Le livre des penetrations metaphysiques (Teheran, 1964), par. 42; see my comparative study, ''Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274) and Mulli Sadri Shirizi (1572-1640) and the primacy of esse/wujud in philosophical theology'', Medieval Philosophy and Theology 8 (1999), pp. 207-19.

45. For Ibn 'Arab!, see William C. Chittick, The Self-Disclosure of God: Principles of Ibn al-Arabi's Cosmology (Albany, 1998); for Shankara, see Sara Grant, Towards an Alternative Theology: Confessions of a Non-dualist Christian, ed. Bradley Malkovsky (Notre Dame, IN, 2001).

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