Further reading

Berkey, Jonathan Porter, The Transmission of Knowledge in Medieval Cairo: A

Social History of Islamic Education (Princeton, 1992). Chamberlain, Michael, Knowledge and Social Practice in Medieval Damascus,

1190-1350 (Cambridge and New York, 1994). Ess, Josef van, The Flowering of Muslim Theology, tr. Jane Marie Todd (Cambridge, MA, 2006).

Theologie und Gesellschaft im 2. und 3. Jahrhundert Hidschra: eine Geschichte des religiösen Denkens im frühen Islam, 6 vols. (Berlin and New York, 1991-5). Güzel, Hasan Celal, Cem, Oguz C., and Karatay, Osman, (eds), The Turks, 6

vols. (Ankara, 2002). Lapidus, Ira M., Muslim Cities in the Later Middle Ages (Cambridge and New York, 1984).

Makdisi, George, Ibn Aqil et la resurgence de l'Islam traditionaliste au xie siecle (Damascus, 1963).

The Rise of Colleges: Institutions of Learning in Islam and the West (Edinburgh, 1981).

Mottahedeh, Roy P., The Mantle of the Prophet: Religion and Politics in Iran (New York, 1985).

Nagel, Tilman, Die Festung des Glaubens: Triumph und Scheitern des islamischen Rationalismus im 11. Jahrhundert (Munich, 1988). Repp, Richard C., The Mufti of Istanbul: A Study in the Development of the

Ottoman Learned Hierarchy (London and Atlantic Highlands, NJ, 1986). Shoshan, Boaz, Popular Culture in Medieval Cairo (New York, 1993). Taylor, Christopher Schurman, In the Vicinity of the Righteous: Ziyhra and the Veneration of Muslim Saints in Late Medieval Egypt (Boston, 1999).

al-Zarnüjl, Burhan al-DIn, Instruction of the Student: The Method of Learning, tr. G. E. von Grunebaum and Theodora M. Abel, 2nd revised edn (Chicago, 2001).

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