Further reading

Sunnism

Abrahamov, Binyamin Islamic Theology: Traditionalism and Rationalism (Edinburgh, 1998).

al-Baydawi, 'Abd Allah, Tawali' al-anwhr min matali' al-anzhr, tr. Edwin E. Calverley and James W. Pollock, as Nature, Man and God in Medieval Islam: Abd Allah Baydawi's Text Tawali al-Anwar min Matali' al-Anzar, along with Mahmud Isfahani's commentary Matali' al-Anzar Sharh Tawali' al-Anwar (Brill, 2002). Ceric, Mustafa, Roots of Synthetic Theology in Islam: A Study of the Theology of Abu Mansuar al-Maturidi (Kuala Lumpur, 1995). Dabashi, Hamid, Authority in Islam (London, 1989).

Frank, Richard M., Creation and the Cosmic System: Ghazali and Avicenna (Heidelberg, 1992). al-Ghazali and the Ash'arite School (Durham, NC, 1994). al-Ghazall, Muhammad, Tahafut al-falasifa, ed. and tr. Michael E. Marmura

(Provo, UT, 1997). Leaman, Oliver, Averroes and His Philosophy (London, 1997).

A Brief Introduction to Islamic Philosophy (Oxford, 1999). Madelung, Wilferd, Religious Schools and Sects in Medieval Islam (London, 1985).

Makdisi, George, Ibn 'Aqil: Religion and Culture in Classical Islam (Edinburgh, 1997).

Nagel, Tilman, History of Islamic Theology from Muhammad to the Present

(Princeton, 2000). Ormsby, Eric, Theodicy in Islamic Thought (Princeton, 1984). al-Shahrastanï, Muhammad, The Summa Philosophiae of al-Shahrastani, Kitab nihayat al-iqdam fi 'ilm al-kalam, tr. Alfred Guillaume (London, 1930-4).

Watt, W. Montgomery Islamic Creeds: A Selection (Edinburgh, 1994). Wolfson, H., The Philosophy of the Kalam (Cambridge, MA, 1976).

Sha'ism

Antes, Peter, Zur Theologie der Scha'a: eine Untersuchung des G ami' al-asrhr wa-manba' al-anwar von Sayyid Haidar Amula (Freiburg, 1971). Daftary, Farhad, The Ismalhs (Cambridge, 1990).

Jafri, Husain M., The Origins and Early Development of Shaa'a Islam (London,

McDermott, Martin, The Theology of al-Shaikh al-Mufid (Beirut, 1978). Notes

1. See on this the various entries on theology in Oliver Leaman (ed.), The Qur'an: An Encyclopedia (London, 2006). For information about the major theologians Oliver Leaman (ed.), Bibliographical Dictionary of Islamic Philosophy (London, 2006) may be consulted.

2. Massimo Campanini, "Al-Ghazzalï", in Seyyed Hossein Nasr and Oliver Leaman (eds.), History of Islamic Philosophy (London: 1996), pp. 258-74.

3. Richard M. Frank, Al-Ghazala and the Ash'arite School (Durham, NC,

4. Especially in his Tahafut al-tahafut, discussed in detail in Oliver Leaman, Introduction to Classical Islamic Philosophy (Cambridge, 2002).

5. Oliver Leaman, ''Islamic philosophy and the attack on logic'', Topoi 19 (2000), pp. 17-24.

6. Ludwig Wittgenstein, On Certainty, tr. G. Anscombe and G. Wright (New York, 1969).

7. A point made forcefully by Averroes in his short essay designed to put theology decisively in its place, the Fasl al-maqal, in G. Hourani (tr.), Averroes on the Harmony of Religion and Philosophy (London, 1976).

8. Muhammad Iqbal, The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam (Lahore, 1930).

9. James Pavlin, ''Sunna kalam and theological controversies'', in Nasr and Leaman, History, 1, pp. 105-18.

10. On the significance of Islamic texts on definition see Kik: Kennedy-Day, Books of Definition: The Limits of Words (London, 2003).

11. Roger Arnaldez, Grammaire et theologie chez Ibn Hazm de Cordoue: essai sur la structure et les conditions de la pensée musulmane (Paris, 1956).

12. Tony Street, "Logic", in Peter Adamson and Richard C. Taylor (eds.), The Cambridge Companion to Arabic Philosophy (Cambridge, 2005), pp. 247-65.

13. I owe much of my interest in the Murji'a to conversations with Ibrahim Hakki Inal, to whom I am grateful.

14. Tim Winter, ''The Last Trump Card: Islam and the Supersession of Other Faiths'', Studies in Interreligious Dialogue 9 (1999), pp. 147-50.

15. See in particular his Kitab al-Tawhid (Book of Unity), ed. Bekir Topaloglu and Muhammad Aruci (Ankara, 2003).

16. Abu Daud, Malahim, i; al-Hikim, al-Mustadrak 'all al-Sahihayn (Hyderabad, 1334-42 ah), iv, p. 522.

17. Josef van Ess, Theologie und Gesellschaft im 2. und 3. Jahrhundert Hidschra: eine Geschichte des religiösen Denkens im frühen Islam (Berlin, 1991), i, pp. 278-316, 336-92; Wilferd Madelung, 'Imamism and Mu'tazilite theology', in Le Shi'isme imamite, ed. T. Fahd (Paris, 1979), pp. 13-29.

18. Farhad Daftary, The Ismi'ilis (Cambridge, 1990).

19. See Abdulaziz Sachedina, Islamic Messianism: The Idea of the Mahdi in Twelver Shi'ism (Albany, 1981).

20. On Qum versus Baghdad, see Andrew J. Newman, The Formative Period of Twelver Shi'ism: Hadith as Discourse between Qum and Baghdad (London, 2000).

21. On al-Mufld, see Martin McDermott, The Theology of al-Shaikh al-Mufid (Beirut, 1978); Sayyid Waheed Akhtar, Early Shi'ite Imimiyyah Thinkers (New Delhi, 1988); Tamima Bayhom-Daon, Shaykh Mufid (Oxford, 2005).

22. The best introduction to him and to Zaydl theology remains Wilferd Madelung, Der Imam al-Qasim ibn Ibrihim und die Glaubenslehre der Zaiditen (Berlin, 1965).

23. Paul Walker, Early Philosophical Shiism (Cambridge, 1994).

24. Christian Jambet, La grande resurrection d'Alamut (Paris, 1990).

25. Sabine Schmidtke, The Theology of al-'Allima al-Hilll (Berlin, 1991).

26. Sabine Schmidtke, ''Introduction'' to Khulisat al-nazar, eds. Sabine Schmidtke and Hasan Ansari (Tehran, 2006), pp. xiii-xiv.

27. Peter Antes, Zur Theologie der Schi'a: eine Untersuchung des Gimi' al-asrir wa-manba' al-anwir von SayyidHaidar Amuli (Freiburg, 1971).

28. Sabine Schmidtke, Theologie, Philosophie und Mystik im zwolferschii-tischen Islam des 9./15. Jahrhunderts: Die Gedankenwelt des Ibn Abt Gumhur al-Ahsii (Leiden, 2000).

29. Devin Stewart, 'The genesis of the Akhbari revival', in Michel Mazzaoui (ed.), Safavid Iran and Her Neighbors (Salt Lake City, 2003), pp. 169-94.

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