Further reading

Encyclopedia of Islam, 2nd edn, 12 vols. (Leiden, 1986-2004), articles ''Abu'l-Hudhayl al-'Alläf''; ''Ahmad b. Hanbal''; ''al-Ash'arä, Abu'l-Hasan''; ''Bishr b. Ghiyäth al-Maräsä''; ''Bishr b. al-Mu'tamir''; ''Djahm b. Safwän''; ''Djahmiyya''; ''Ghaylän b. Muslim''; ''al-Hasan al-Basrä''; ''Hisham b. al-Hakam''; ''Ikhtiyar''; ''Istita'a''; ''Kadariyya''; ''Karramiyya''; ''Kasb''; ' 'al-Mäturädä ''; ' 'Murdji'a''; ' '¡Mu'tazila''; ' 'al-Nadjdjär''; '' Shi'a''. Cook, Michael, Early Muslim Dogma (Cambridge, 1981). Ess, Josef van, 'Das Kitäb al-irga' des Hasan b. Muhammad b. al-Hanafiyya', Arabica 21 (1974), pp. 20-5. Theologie und Gesellschaft im 2. und 3. Jahrhundert Hidschra: eine Geschichte des religiösen Denkens im frühen Islam, 6 vols. (Berlin, 1991-5). Frank, Richard M., ''Remarks on the early development of the kaläm'', Atti del terzio congresso di studi arabi e islamici (Naples, 1967), pp. 315-29. ''The science of kaläm'', Arabic Sciences and Philosophy 2 (1992), pp. 7-37. Gimaret, Daniel, Dieu a l'image de l'homme: les anthropomorphismes de la sunna et leur interpretation par les theologiens (Paris, 1997). La doctrine d'al-Ash'ari (Paris, 1990). Mourad, Suleiman Ali, Early Islam between Myth and History: al-Hasan al-Basrä (d. 110 h / 728 ce) and the Formation of His Legacy in Classical Islamic Scholarship (Leiden and Boston, 2006). Nagel, Tilman, The History of Islamic Theology: From Muhammad to the

Present (Princeton, 2000). Watt, W. Montgomery, The Formative Period of Islamic Thought (Edinburgh, 1973).

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