Abu Nasr al-Farabi (875-950) (Abunaser, or Alfarabius in medieval Latin texts), often esteemed as the ''Second Teacher'', is one of the most original thinkers in Islamic philosophy. His commentaries on the Aristotelian logical texts of the Organon were pivotal in the process of refining Arabic logical terminology and formal techniques.14 For example, he elaborated and refined the rules of inference with clearer identifications of valid moods. One of his major theoretical works, The Book of Letters (Kitab al-Huruf), represents the first attempt to study language in relation to logic in a clear and systematic way.15 Together with his other independent technical work, Utterances Employed in Logic, Farabi defined a new style and structure for the study of logic in which he introduced linguistic transformations in ascertaining the meaning of philosophical terms. These texts represent perhaps the first technical examination of how many ways a thing can be said. They include a critique of predication, an examination of truth-value and meaning, and an analysis and refinement of many other formal logical arguments and problems.
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