Notes

1. The Qur'an employs four words from this root, in a total of 277 instances. It uses the verb 'abada 124 times and the gerund form 'ibïda 9 times; the word 'abd in the singular and plural 130 times; and the active participle 'abid 12 times.

2. There is also the far less commonly used 'ubuda, ''servitude'', which is discussed by Qushayrï and Ibn 'Arabï among others.

4. Franz Rosenthal, Knowledge Triumphant: The Concept of Knowledge in Medieval Islam (Leiden, 1970).

5. Hujwïrï, Kashf al-mahjub, ed. V. Zhukovsky (Tehran, 1336/1957), p. 11.

7. Muhammad Baqir Majlisï, Bihar al-anwar, 110 vols. (Beirut, 1983), 1, p. 116.

8. Ghazïli, Ihya' 'ulum al-dïn, 6 vols. (Cairo, 1992), iv, p. 31.

9. Ghazali, al-Maqsad al-asna fa sharh ma'ana asma' Allah al-husna, ed. Fadlou A. Shehadi (Beirut, 1971), pp. 42ff. See also Ghazala: The Ninety-Nine Beautiful Names of God, tr. by David B. Burrell and Nazih Daher (Cambridge, 1992), pp. 30ff. The translators render al-takhalluq bi-akhlaq Allah as ''conforming to the perfections of God''. The word akhlaaq means character traits, both virtues and vices. If one wants to translate it as ''perfections'', one might better translate the whole expression as ''becoming perfect through God's perfections''.

10. Abu 'Abd al-Rahman al-Sulama, Haqa'iq al-tafsar, MS, commentary on Qur'an 2:2i.

12. Sulami, on 4:36; also in Paul Nwyia, Trois oeuvres inédites de mystiques musulmanes (Beirut, 1973), p. 45.

15. al-Qushayri, al-Risala, ed. 'Abd al-Halïm Mahmud and Mahmud ibn al-Sharïf (Cairo, 1972), p. 430.

16. Sulami, Haqa'iq al-tafsar; Nwyia, Trois oeuvres, p. 41.

17. Versions of this hadith are found in most collections; Arent Jan Wensinck et al., Concordance et indices de la tradition musulmane (Leiden, 1936-88), 1, p. 486.

18. Sulami, Haqa'iq al-tafsar, on 2:256.

20. Gerhard Bowering (ed.), The Minor Qur'an Commentary of Abu 'Abd ar-Rahman as-Sulami (Beirut: 1997), p. 5.

26. Qushayri, Risala, 429.

28. al-Muhasiba, al-Ri'aya li huqUq Allah, ed. 'A. Mahmud and 'A. Ahmad 'Ata (Cairo, 1970), p. 40.

31. Ibn 'Arabi, al-Futuhat al-Makkiyya (Cairo, 1911, repr. Beirut, n.d.), 111, p. 78, tr. in William C. Chittick, The Sufi Path of Knowledge (Albany, 1989), p. 311.

32. Futuhat, 11, p. 217; Chittick, Sufi Path, p. 301.

33. Abu 'Ali al-Daqqaq, cited by Qushayri, Risala, p. 432.

34. Ibn 'Araba often talks about these five meanings of the name rabb: e.g. Futuhat, 11, p. 251; hi, pp. 383, 537; iv, p. 198.

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