Notes

1. Daniel Gimaret, La doctrine d'al-Ash'ari (Paris: 1990), pp. 240-1.

2. IbnAbiYa'la ibn al-Farra', Tabaqat al-Hanabila (Damascus, 1350/1931), pp. 12, 24, 41, 62-3, 78-82, 101-2, 115, 125, 204, 217, 238, 240, 247, 276.

6. Ibn Badran al-Dimashqi, al-Madkhal ila madhhab al-imam Ahmad Ibn Hanbal (Cairo, 1919), pp. 7-10, 12-14.

7. Ishaq ibn Ibrahim al-Nisaburl, Masa'il al-imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal, ed. Zuhayr al-Shawish (Beirut, 1979), p. 60. The strictures of traditionalists with respect to the practice of ijtihad and ta'wil also found radical expressions in the legacy of Muwaffaq al-Din Ibn Qudama (d. 1223) in his Tahrim al-nazar fa kutub ahl al-kalam (The Censure of Speculative Theology), ed. and tr. George Makdisi (London, 1962).

8. Abu Mansur al-Maturidi, Sharh al-fiqh al-akbar (Hyderabad, 1948), p. 6.

9. Maturidi, Sharh, p. 15; Ab├╝ al-Hasan al-Ash'ari, Kitab al-ibana 'an usuUl al-diyana (Hyderabad, 1948), p. 38.

13. Laoust, Henri, La profession de foi d'Ibn Batta (Damascus: 1958), pp. 57-8, 87.

14. ''We believe in it; all is from our Lord'' (3:7).

15. Gimaret, Doctrine d'al-Ash'ari, pp. 211-12.

16. Michel Allard, Le probleme des attributs divins dans la doctrine d'al-Ash'ari (Beirut, 1965), p. 199.

17. al-Ash'ari, Kitab al-luma', ed. Hammuda Ghuraba (Cairo, 1955), p. 9.

22. Ibn Sina, Kitab al-shifa': Metaphysics, 11, ed. G. C. Anawati, Ibrahim Madkour and Sa'id Zayed (Cairo, 1975), p. 36.

23. Ibn Sana, Metaphysica of Avicenna, tr. Parviz Morewedge (New York, 1973), p.43.

24. Ibn Sana, Kitab al-Hidaya, ed. Muhammad 'Abduh (Cairo, 1874), pp. 262-3; Salim Mashran, al-janib al-ilahi 'inda Ibn Sina (Damascus, 1992), p. 99; Ibn Sina, Shifa', p. 354.

25. Abu Hamid al-Ghazali, The Incoherence of the Philosophers, tr. Michael E. Marmura (Provo, UT, 1997), p. 97.

30. Muhammad ibn 'Abd al-Karim al-Shahrastani, Kitab al-milal wa'l-nihal (Livre des religions et des sectes), tr. Daniel Gimaret and Guy Monnot, 2 vols. (Paris, 1986-93).

31. al-Shahrastani, Kitab al-musara'a (Struggling with the Philosopher: A Refutation of Avicenna's Metaphysics), ed. and tr. Wilferd Madelung and Toby Mayer (London, 2001).

32. al-Shahrastani, Nihayat al-iqdam fi 'ilm al-kalam: The Summa Philosophiae of Shahrastani, ed. with partial tr. Alfred Guillaume (Oxford, 1934), p. 316.

34. Guy Monnot, ''Shahrastani'', Encyclopedia of Islam, 2nd edn, 12 vols. (Leiden, 1986-2004), ix, pp. 214-16.

35. Fakhr al-Din al-Razi, al-Mabahith al-mashriqiyya (Hyderabad, 1924), i, p. 4. _

36. For instance, Razi attempted to refute the philosophical Neoplatonist emanation principle that from Unity only unity issues forth (ex uno non fit nisi unum).

37. Fakhr al-Din al-Razi, Muhassal afkar al-mutaqaddimin wa'l-muta'akhkhirin min al-'ulama' wa'l-hukama' wa'l-mutakallimin (Cairo, 1323/1905).

38. Sayf al-Din al-Amidi, Abkar al-afkar fi usual al-din, ed. Ahmad Muhammad al-Mahdi (Cairo, 2004).

39. Sa'd al-Din al-Taftazani, Sharh al-'aqa'id al-Nasafiyya (A Commentary on the Creed of Islam), ed. and tr. Earl Edgar Elder (New York, 1950).

40. Taftazani, Sharh, p. 78ff.

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