Introduction 1

1 Toward the Third Millennium 3

The Pontificate of Shenuda III 3

The Holy Synod of the Coptic Church 9

2 The Coptic Church: Its History, Traditions, Theology, and Structure 13

Traditions about the Flight of the Holy Family into Egypt 13

The Birth of Christ 14

From Bethlehem to the Nile Delta 14

In the Nile Delta 17

In the Nile Valley 20

The Return of the Holy Family to Palestine 27

Saint Mark the Evangelist and the Founding of the Church in Egypt 28

The Preaching and Martyrdom of Mark 28

The History of the Relics of Mark 30

The Return of the Relics of Mark 33

The Theological Contributions of the See of Alexandria 35 The Spread of Coptic Monasticism to the Orient and

Occident 35

The Catechetical School and Theological Controversies 37

The Canon of the Holy Scriptures 40

The Writings of the Church Fathers 42

The Canons of the Coptic Church 45

The Pre-Nicene Canons 46

The Canons of the Councils and the Synods 46

The Canons of the Doctors of the Church 49

The Canons of the Middle Ages 50

Use of Coptic Canon Law Today 51

The History of Coptic Theology from the Fifth to the

Twentieth Century 52

The Pre-Chalcedonian Theology 52

The Council of Chalcedon 53

The Post-Chalcedonian Theology 54

The Theology of the Middle Ages 55

Coptic Theologians of the Nineteenth and Twentieth

Centuries 61

The Copts from the Seventh to the Twentieth Century 64

The Copts and the Arab Conquest 64

The Copts in the Middle Ages 65

The French Invasion 66

The Reign of Muhammad cAli 68

The Coptic Enlightenment 69

The Emergence of the Laymen's Movement 71

The British Occupation: Expectations and Frustrations 74

Toward Independence: The Wafd 76

The Patriarchates of Joseph II and Cyril VI 77

The Patriarchate of Shenuda III 79

The Copts and the National Struggle 81

Some Notable Coptic Families of the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries 85

The Coptic Sunday Schools, Cradle of the Twentieth-

Century Renaissance 93

The Folk Religion of the Copts 95

The Coptic Mulid, Its Origins and Functions 95

The Healing Ministry of the Coptic Church 99

Mystical Phenomena among the Copts 104

From a National to an International Christian Community 122 Toward the Mia Physis, the One Nature of the

Incarnate Word 123

The Coptic Diaspora 129

The Coptic African Mission 132 The Copts in the Holy Land and the Question of the

Holy Places 136

3 The Coptic Church: Its Churches and Monasteries,

Ancient and Modern 143

Early Christianity in Alexandria 143

Some Coptic Churches in Modern Alexandria 146

The Ancient Churches and Monasteries around Alexandria 148

The Lourdes in the Desert: Saint Menas 151

Cellia 154

The Coptic Monasteries ofWadi al-Natrun 155

Christianity in the Nile Delta 171

The Principal Towns and Villages 171

The Coptic Pilgrimage Shrines 176

The Coptic Churches of Old Cairo and Its Environs 182

The Coptic Churches of Babylon 183

The Coptic Churches of Old Cairo 188

The Coptic Churches North of Old Cairo 191

The Coptic Churches South of Old Cairo 192

Some Coptic Churches in Greater Cairo 194

The Churches and Monasteries between Cairo and Suhag 205

Between Cairo and Minya 205

Between Minya and Asyut 214

East of Asyut 223

Between Asyut and Suhag 225 The Churches and Monasteries between Suhag and Aswan 228

West of Suhag 228

East of Akhmim 230

Between Girga and Nag'Hammadi 232

Between Nag'Hammadi and Luxor 233

Between Naqada and Qamula 236

The Churches and Monasteries of Thebes 238

The Churches in the Temples in and around Luxor 240

Between Luxor and Aswan 241

The Churches and Monasteries of the Fayyum 246

The Churches and Monasteries of the Western Desert 251

The Monastery of Saint Samuel at al-Qalamun 251

The Caves of Wadi al-Rayyan 253

The Christian Remains in Kharga Oasis 255

The Christian Remains in Dakhla Oasis 257

The Christian Remains in Bahariya Oasis 258

The Churches and Monasteries of the Eastern Desert 259

The Monastery of Saint Antony at Mount Clysma 259

The Cave of Saint Antony 261

The Hermitages in Wadi 'Araba 262

The Monastery of Saint Paul the Theban 262

The Christian Ruins at Qattar 263

Appendix A: Marks of Identification: Tattoo and Name 265

Appendix B: The Patriarchs of the Coptic Church and the

Rulers of Egypt 273

Appendix C: Language, Architecture, and Calendar 283

Appendix D: The Relics of Coptic Saints 311

Bibliography 323

Index 331

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