When the New Covenant came into being probably in AD 3, 1QS 1:1-4:26, 5:20b-7:25, and 1QSa were written to describe the aims, organization, rules, and penal code for the sect. 1QSb was also written, as a collection of blessings for the sect and its leaders.398

In these documents, the (High) Priest was again the leader over the entire sect followed by the Messiah of Israel.399 The latter was also called the "Prince of the Congregation."400 Control of the property was the responsibility of the twelve head levites or overseers.401 If we accept a continuity with 1QM 2-9, the leadership structure is as follows (the higher up the table, the greater the authority):402

398. I believe that Thiering correctly shows that there are four separate units in 1QS in which certain changes in the organization of the sect can be discovered. They are: 1) 1:1-4:26, 5:20b-7:25 (with 1QSa and 1QSb); 2) 5:1-20a; 3) 8:1-15a, 9:12-26; and 4) 8:16b-9:11. However, my interpretations of them differ from Thiering's in many ways. See Thiering, Redating the Teacher of Righteousness, 107-9, 125-79.

401. 1QS 6:12, 20, cf. CD 9:16-20, 13:2-14:18, 15:7-17. Thiering makes a good case that the overseers were levites and controlled the property of the sect, but I do not agree with her that the twelve tribal heads were also overseers (Thiering, Redating the Teacher of Righteousness, 137-41). After AD 62 when Symeon, the son of Clopas, was the leader of the New Covenant and CD was written (AD 656), it appears that the overseers were priests (CD 14:6).

402. 1QS 2:19-21, 6:8-9, 1QSa 1:22-5, 1:27-2:3, 2:11-7, 1QSb 5:20.

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