87, 89. Is not this a full testimony against their opinion of the torments of hell ? For if it be not to be read in the word of God, what have we to do with it ? We are not to believe anything in religion, unless it be written. How readest thou? saith Christ. Revealed things belong to us, Deut. xxix. 29. Jh it is written, 1 believed. 2 Cor. iv. 13. They confess it is not written: then sure I am it is not to be by any affirmed nor believed. Meddle not with things not'revealed; they are but groundless conceits, fables, and traditions of men.
The word hell is not in the Hebrew and Greek Bible; for the word in the Hebrew, for which the English word hell is put, is sheol; the proper signification of sheol is the grave, as all that be learned in the Hebr.ew do know. Sheol hath its signification of shaal, to crave or require : therefore it is one of the four that is never satisfied. Prov. xxx. 15. - We learn the propriety of the Hebrew word from the learned Rabbies, Saith Dr. Fulke. Def. Trans. Bib. p. 90. The Hebrew Doctors and Jewish Rabbies are for signification of words faithful interpreters; they say, sheol is the grave. Rabbi Levi, according to the opinion of the learned* expounds' sheol to be the lowest region of the world, opposite to heaven If I descend into sheol, thou art present So R. Abraham on Jonah ii. And David Cbimchi, and R. Solomon, read Psalm ix. 16, 17. Let the wicked be turned into sheol: that is, death's estate or deadly bed. Jonah calls the belly of the whale sheol, Jon. -ii. 2, 3. Rabbi Solomon Jarchi,on Gen. xxxvii. 35, saith, that the true and proper interpretation of sheol is keber, which is the grave. Thé hoar head Is said to go down to sheol, Gen. xlii. 38. In Numb. xvi. 33, it is said, they, their substance, and cattle, went alive to sheolah; that is, the pit, or grave. Our bones are scattered at the very brink or mouth of sheol, Psal. cxli. 7. Jacob said, I will go down to my son Joseph to sheol, Gen. xxxvii. 35.— The Protestait writers say sheol property signifies the grave ; Dr. Fulke's Answer to the Preface Rhem-ist9 p. 22. So also in his Defence, p. 91. Mr. Beza saith, that sheol properly signifies nothing but the grave, or pit. Fulke saith, the best of the Hebrews that either interpreted Scripture, or made dictionaries, Jews or Christians, say sheol properly signifies the grave, p. 89; and that deliverance from .the lowest hell, is deliverance from the greatest danger of death; so Fulke's Answ. Rhemist, pp. 13, 39, 13&; and so the late Annotation of the Bible interprets il. And Augustine on Psalm xxxvi. 13, for lowest hell reads lowest grave; andsoDr.Willet, Synop. p. 10*19.
The Chaldee Paraphrast retaineth the word sheol9 and translates it,, the house of the grave, pp. 11, 15. They interpret sheol, kebwrata, the grave: Job xxi. 13. Beith kebwrata, the house of thè grave, pp. 17, 12. Rabbi Abraham Peristsol joins sheol and keber together, both signifying the grave ; and so doth Dr. Fulke in his Defence, p. 91. And so Mr. Cart-wright on Acts ii. 27. Mr. Cradock saith, hell is not mentioned in the Old Testament, except as it is taken for the grave; in his Good News, p. 43.
Sheol enforces not any place of punishment, because it signifies not any place of punishment; so torments of befil, IS
says Dr. Willed Synop. p. 1055. Also he saith the word sheol cannot be translated, except for the grave. There are four words in the Psalms expressing the same thing in effect that sheol doth, yet none of them applicable to signify any place of torment; the first is shacath, fovea, the pit, Psalm xpcx. 9; the second,is bhor, the lake; the third is keber, the grave; both these words used for the same thing, Psalm Ixxxviii. 3. The word is sheol, ver. 45, the other word used as expressing the former: and all these three do contain a description of death and the grave. The fourth is tehemoth, abyssus turret: Thou wilt take me from the depths of the earth, Psalm h;xi. 20. In all which there is no mention of a place of torment. Willet Synop. p. 1050.
The Greek translates sheol into haden or hades of Adam, because Adam tasted death, and went to the grave, Gen. iii. 19. The gat$s of sheol is death; sheol and hades are said to have gates, Isaiah xxxviii. 10. Psalm ix. 13. Mat. xvi. 18.
The Septuagint express a place generally to receive the dead; the word used in the Greek instead of the Hebrew word sheol, signipes a dark place, such as the grave or pit in which the dead are laid. Dr. Fulke saith, some take the Greek word for hell, but it signifies the grave; hell it cannot signify when used by those that believe no hell. The Greeks say plainly, that their souls shall vanish like light smoke, or light air; Fulke*s Def p. 92. Also he saith, if the Greek and Latin interpreters had before us translated amiss, which gave occasion to divers qrrors, must we (knowing the true signification of the word) follow them?
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The word hell is not in the Greek; the Greek word for ifvhich they put the English word hell, is gehenna; ge in Greek is the earth, or ground, and henna is Borrowed from the Hebrew, from the valley of jEK»-nom. Dr. Lightfoot, in his epistle prefixed to his Harmony, saith, It is well known the judgment of gehenna is takeiv from the valley of gehenna; To-phet or gehenna are names of the places of idolatry; there was the idol Moloch.
Section JI. Of Hell-fire, Mat. v. 22, and the ever-> lasting fire, and unquenchable fire, Mat. xxv. 41, 46. Feor him that hath power to cast into hell, Luke xii. 5. The damnation cf hell, Mat. xxiii. 33,
Mat. v. "22. The fire of gehenna, and the everlasting fire, &c/ How the Jews understood them is evident^ ly to be seen in their writings; they understood these Expressions to signify the fire of the valley of Hinnom; so saithDr. Lightfoot to the reader, in his Harmony, because of the law thou art delivered from the judgment of gehenna and BaaUTur. Gem. i. 1.
The Protestant writers confess that Mat. v. 22. xxv. 41, 46, Luke xii. 5, are to be understood of the fire of the valley of the son of Hinnoiii, which is Tophet; so Mr. Cartwright, Dr. Pftlke, Mr. Trap, and the late Annotations on the Bible, and others, for in danger of hell-fire read, in danger of being burned in the Valley of Hinnom, or Tophet;— the damnation of hell, gehenna ; they interpret these places of the valley of Hinnom, or Tophet, which place was near to Jerusalem, where thej of-
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