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Making and Keeping Friends

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Immanuel common friendship

This final section proposes friendship between humanity and non-human nature. The eucharist is an ecclesial action which requires a pedagogy the eucharist is a difference which makes a difference. That difference is a pedagogy of friendship. Friendship implies reciprocity and alteration. It is thus suited as a way of describing a eucharistic pedagogy of human-nonhuman relations in the common realm. It also indicates a way forward out of the distorted sociality of humanity in its relations with nature. The damage of the distortion of sociality cannot be overcome through the naturalistic extrusion ofhumanity through vitalistic or processive categories. Nor is a resolution to be found in the incorporation of nature into a 'second nature' of humanity. Eucharistic pedagogy takes neither ofthese routes. From this perspective, the judgment that Christianity has no stake in non-theological classifications of the world, as proposed by Stanley Hauerwas and John Berkman, is too hasty.68 On...

Contents Of This Intuition

It is to be remembered, however, that the loss of love to God has greatly obscured even this rational intuition, so that the revelation of nature and the Scriptures is needed to awaken, confirm and enlarge it, and the special work of the Spirit of Christ to make it the knowledge of friendship and communion. Thus from knowing about God, we come to know God

Theoretical Philosophy

It is perhaps the scope of Kant's terms, rather than his arguments, that should arouse the theologian's suspicion. Kant never argues for his account of God as ens realissimum. It is a technical term he inherits, and he simply chooses not to consider any richer set of descriptions, or more imaginative names, of God. Put slightly differently, it may be Kant's presuppositions, not his demonstrations, that produce theological difficulties. If that is so, the most appropriate theological responses will not primarily be a question of exposing fallacious arguments or weak chains of reasoning, but will involve identifying problematic presuppositions, and repairing them. When Kant says that we cannot know God, he means that God is not a phenomenon. There are no sense data to be judged according to a concept or rule that produces the claim This object is God. Yet it is striking that this sense of knowing God is distinct from the senses of knowing God that are rehearsed in patterns of prayer and...

The Bloodline Of The Russells

Before becoming aware of the One World Order, this Author had no inkling how important blood lines have been for the elite that controls the world. Friendships have also played a role, for instance, Eleanor Roosevelt (who was involved in numerous communist organizations6) was a close friend and confidant to Ronald Reagon's mother. This seems trivial, but the reoccurance of blood lines and the reoccurant discovery of connections of friendships between what have been thought of as unrelated personages, compels one to believe the elite is more compact than appears.(More on that later)

God Is Revealing Himself The Revelation Of Jesus Christ

Divine revelation on the other hand, only works when there is interaction. It requires interaction. It seeks interaction. The observer is you, the mature believer. The Subject is God, the creator of the universe. Since he has an infinite scope, only so much of Him can be observed at any one time. And what you observe is what he chooses to reveal of himself as you seek him. You can't even think of it in terms of observer and subject. It works entirely different than scientific method or any other worldly approach. This is genuine truth, subjective truth, and divine fellowship, friendship and worship.

A guardian who had been a father to me more than most real fathers [Letters p53

It was in this group that Tolkien met C.S. Lewis and their friendship would become very strong. Tolkien would have an enormous effect of Lewis and vice versa. In fact, in a conversation that lasted until 4 am in the morning Tolkien and Chesterton another well known Christian writer and Oxford Academic helped in Lewis' conversion to Christianity. Tolkien Friendship with Lewis compensates for much, and besides giving constant pleasure and comfort has done me much good from the contact with a man at once honest, brave, and intellectual - a scholar, a poet, and a philosopher - a lover, at least after a long pilgrimage, of Our Lord. M&M p.60, The Inklings, Carpenter p.52

Sholem Divine Talmudists Holy Communion

Community of Israel to God, and her longing for him, for these souls make possible the flow of the lower waters toward the upper, and this brings about perfect friendship and the yearning for mutual embrace in order to bring forth fruit. When they cleave one to another, then says the Community of Israel in the largeness of her affections 'Set me a seal upon thy heart.' (same book, pages 6970) There is much more of the same.

Basel Libellus For John The Evangelist

Basel Libellus For John The Evangelist

What little there is of theological substance in my own contributions to this book is the result of others, who over the years have enriched my life with their writings and conversation and friendship. I am happy to say that many of them are contributors to this volume, and they will know who they are. In addition I must also thank - for various kinds of help and support, friendship and insight - Pamela Sue Anderson, Jeremy Carrette, Sarah Coakley, Elaine Graham, Fergus Kerr OP, Janet and Nicholas Lash, Rob MacSwain, Alison and John Milbank, Andrea and Paul Murray, George Newlands, John Sawyer, Paul Julian Smith, Janet Martin Soskice, Will Sweetman, Mark Vernon, Alison Webster and Alex Wright, Jane and Rowan Williams. There will be many I have forgotten, and though unnamed they too will know who they are, and I thank them all. Finally I must remember Andrew Ballantyne, not only for being there, but for being there with such quiet good sense and infinite patience.

Augustine on Social Life

Yet it is love of friendship that lies at the root of what might be called Augustine's practical philosophy his history, ethics, social and political theology (Burt 1999). Pinioned between alienation and affection, human beings - those cracked pots - are caught in the tragedy of alienation but glued by love. Our sociality is given, so for Augustine the question is not Should we be social or Should we trust enough to love but rather What shall I love and how shall I love it (Burt 1999 5) His complex ethical theory follows I can only touch on it here, but it must be noted that political life is one form that human social and ethical life assumes. We are always in society and we always seek the consolation of others. Society, for Augustine, is a species of friendship, and friendship is a moral union in and through which human beings strive for a shared good. All of Augustine's central categories, including war and peace, are in the form of a relation of one sort or another. And the more...

General Characteristics Of The New

The Graeco-Roman world presents the greatest contrasts and extremes. Every age may be so characterised, but this holds true in a special manner of these centuries. Monotony had dropped out of life. The homogeneousness of nations was disturbed. The systems which had held men together on a certain equality were broken down, and the gorgon of undisciplined individualism had appeared on the scene. The old and the new were consorting. Some were gazing at the setting sun others expectantly toward the rising sun. This age presents none of the monotony of the lethargic Orient nor the homogeneity of mediaevalism. Hence so many contrary and even contradictory statements have been made about it and supported by the citation of abundant authorities. There appears a Juxtaposition of several worlds the world of sensualism and luxury among the upper classes, as described by Juvenal, Tacitus, Petronius that of despair and void, but not without a ray of hope, as in the pages of Cicero, Seneca, and...

The Union Of The Two Natures In One Person

Distinctly as the Scriptures represent Jesus Christ to have been possessed of a divine nature and of a human nature, each unaltered in essence and not divested of its normal attributes and powers, they with equal distinctness represent Jesus Christ as a single undivided personality in whom these two natures are vitally and inseparably united so that he is properly not God and man, but the God-man. The two natures are bound together, not by the moral tie of friendship nor by the spiritual tie which links the believer to his Lord but by a bond unique and inscrutable which constitutes them one person with a single consciousness and will. This consciousness and will including within their possible range both the human nature and the divine.

The Wisdom Of Solomon

The actual name Solomon derives from the Semitic word salaam and means safety or peace. Other than a minor military operation in northern Sudan during his Year 5 (1401 B.C.), Amenhotep Ill's reign was almost entirely peaceful. He was the first ruler of the Egyptian empire who did not launch any military campaigns in western Asia. Instead, he relied on alliances and exchanges of gifts and diplomatic letters between himself and other leaders of the then-known world to create a climate of international friendship. He also furthered the cause of peace by a series of judicious marriages to strange women two princesses from Syria, Mitanni and Babylonia, and one from Arzawa in southwestern Asia Minor. The extravagance of the age is indicated by the fact that Gilukhepa, one of his Mitannian wives, is said to have arrived in Egypt with a caravan that included more than 300 ladies-in-waiting.

Secular Vatican Mussolini to Mafia

He was an ideal choice for the Vatican also beset with similar problems. This was the man to whom Pope Paul VI turned to move the Vatican's investments out of Italy. And with the help of his friend Bishop Marcinkus - 'God's Banker' - Sindona was able to use the Vatican Bank as a front in his money laundering operations. His close friendship with Marcinkus, and the Pope himself, allowed him to use the Vatican bank as practically an extension of his Mafia money laundering business. With such influential friends no one was asking any questions until American authorities arrested him in New York after several spectacular bank failures. In 1973, the good Bishop had warmly told American investigators Michele and I are very good friends He is well ahead of his time as far as financial matters are concerned. Less than two years later the same Marcinkus was saying The truth is that I don't even know Sindona. How can I have lost money because of him The Vatican has not lost a cent, the rest is...

The defeat or the Arians

Through long friendship and discussion the three Cappadocians worked out an interpretation of the Nicene formula which removed the doubts of many who had thus far questioned it. They were loyal to the wording of that formula, including ousia and homo-ousion, the words which were such a stumbling block to the Arians and which were regarded by the latter as smacking of Sabellianism, that is, as we may remind ourselves again, making Father, Son, and Holy Spirit modes or aspects of God. As we have suggested, they overcame this difficulty by saying that in God there is only one ousia, but that there are three hypostases. Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. They held that there are not three Gods, but only one, and that the one is to be found equally and identically in Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. For these three the Cappadocians preferred the term hypostasis, although they also gave as an alternative term prosopon (npooronov).

The Queen of Sheba Sends Gifts

They told her that they could only offer advice, but it was her right to command action. She sensed that they wanted to meet Solomon's invasion threat with a battle. However, she told them Peace and friendship are better and wiser war only brings humiliation, enslaves people and destroys the good things. I have decided to send gifts to Solomon, selected from our most precious treasure. The courtiers who will deliver the gifts will also have an opportunity to learn about Solomon and his military mighty.

Solomons Rejects the Queens Gifts

The envoys marveled at the splendor surrounding them. They eagerly presented their queen's precious gifts and told Solomon that the queen wished that he would accept them as an act of friendship. They were shocked by his reaction he did not even ask to open the covers of the containers He told them Allah hagiven me plenty of wealth, a large kingdom, and prophethood. I am, therefore, beyond bribery. My only objective is to spread the belief in Tawheed, the Oneness of Allah.

Establishing a National Church

Oikonomos was a contradictory individual whose intellectual formation followed a trajectory similar to that of Voulgaris. In the beginning he was impressed by the Enlightenment and the new ideas however, his protection by the autocratic regime in Russia, his personal friendship with Tsar Alexander I and his strong attachment to the patriarchate made him change his mind after his return to Greece in 1834. He immediately allied himself with the so-called Russian Party and instigated a strong and continuous opposition to all plans for changes that did not have the consent of the patriarchate. In 1833, Pharmakides and the Bavarian Vice-Regent Maurer had formulated a plan which proclaimed (1) the autocephalous Church of Greece, (2) the subordination of the Church to the state, and (3) the dissolution of all monasteries with fewer than six monks. The intention was to free the Church from the powerful influence of the Russian Church and to help the state begin to reconstruct the devastated...

The Gifts Of Christianity

Michael Novak extolled Christianity's gift of dignity. Both Aristotle and Plato held that most humans are by nature slavish and suitable only for slavery, he wrote. Most do not have natures worthy of freedom. The Greeks used 'dignity' for only the few, rather than for all human beings. By contrast, Christianity insisted that every single human is loved by the Creator, made in the Creator's image, and destined for eternal friendship and communion with him.

The Surnaturel of 1946

However, for the alternative neoscholastic construal of the natural desire of the supernatural, Aquinas represented much more of a watershed and indeed the beginning of proper scientific (as opposed to a semi-narrative and rhetorical) theology. For the first time, supposedly, it is clearly allowed by Aquinas and his contemporaries that there is an autonomous natural sphere comprising all of human activity outside the order of salvation. In this way, intrinsic human dignity and autonomy is allowed to emerge, while conversely and concomitantly the true gratuity of grace stands out along with the unnatural wonder of works of self-forgetting mercy inspired by our gracious elevation into friendship with God. De Lubac's reading seemed, for this outlook, simultaneously to compromise the legitimate domain of the secular and the contrasting surprisingness and gratuitousness of the divine works of freedom.

Against Constantinianism

This two-front war against Constantinianism is, I think, best understood through a story of the conversion of the great pagan apologist, Victorinus, told by St. Augustine. After examining the scriptures , St. Augustine reports, Victorinus said to Simplicanus, not openly but in the privacy of friendship, 'Did you not know that I am already a Christian ' Simplicanus replied, 'I shall not believe that or count you among the Christians unless I see you in the Church of Christ.' Victorinus laughed and said 'Then do walls make Christians ' (Augustine 1991 136). For St. Augustine, the answer is clear. Walls do make Christians. Victorinus is not a Christian until he enters into the public life of the church, submitting himself to instruction in the mysteries and giving his name for baptism.

Into the depths philosophies of deep ecology

There are, ofcourse, weaknesses with identification with one's locality. But some of us did learn through the summer of 1992 of the power of big business, of the deep relations between business and central government and of the part cravenness, part powerlessness of local elected officials. Interpreted thus, I consider such 'personal identification' to be deeply op-positional. Such impulses towards identification reside in the patterns of friendship of city dwellers towards their built environment. Here we can

Love in the Modern World

The Romantic endorsement of passion over convention was scandalously promoted in Schlegel's Lucinde (1799), a somewhat incoherent praise of romantic love and marriage as the encounter with the divine source of life. In contrast to the ''mere concubinage'' and ''slavery'' of bourgeois marriage, the Romantics stressed women's individuality and freedom. Schleiermacher's own relationships with women became ''a matter,'' in the words of Clements, ''which has by turns embarrassed and intrigued his biographers and commentators.'' His close friendship with Henrietta Herz was a source of Berlin gossip though they both maintained their mutual attraction was intellectual and spiritual. A more tumultuous relationship was with Eleonore Grunow, the unhappily married wife of a fellow Berlin pastor. Schleiermacher began courting her soon after they met in 1799. Clements states that their relationship was ''virtually a secret betrothal.'' Schleiermacher hoped his urging that she would divorce her...

Disorientation of the ends of natural desires

In Aquinas's anthropology more precise distinctions of aspects of the human are made according to categories adapted from Aristotle we are vegetative, sensible, and rational beings. If our inclination and actions were rightly ordered by our rational apprehension of the proper ends of the human we would also be rightly ordered as agents. The theoretical correlative of this is confidence that there is an objective moral order of nature that is human, social and also cosmic, an order of Being. The ultimate end of life is union with, vision of, or friendship with God. A properly ordered moral life keeps us oriented towards this end our particular sinful acts keep us from this end.

Will we ever find peace When will the Last Judgment occur

We all dream of peace, of a time when humankind can live together in justice, friendship, abundance, and tranquillity. In ancient times there was a hope of the return of the Golden Age when the father God (Kronos or Saturn) was awake, and the gods and humans shared the world in harmony with each other. There had been such a time once perhaps it would return again one knew not how. The Hebrews shared this dream with their pagan neighbors. Once there had been paradise, and the messianic age would come when the lamb and the lion would lie down together, when the hungry would be fed, the blind given sight, and the lame the power to walk, and when a great banquet table would be set up and all the nations would come to eat around it.

One Illustration of Abrahamic Theopolitical Action

For the past four years, a group of 20 Jewish, Muslim, and Christian scholars of scripture, philosophy, and religious politics have met together for periods of intensive study of each other's scriptural traditions. Their work has been inspired by the primary hypothesis that, contrary to the persistent assumptions of most researchers and leaders in international policy, the Abrahamic scriptural traditions are untapped resources for conflict resolution. Confirming their first hypothesis, these initial meetings have been surprisingly successful, generating joyous camaraderie and deep friendship as well as intellectual productivity. Participants have discovered that the three traditions share as many interpretive rules and strategies as they do not share, and that the closer their readings come to intimate belief in God, the more closely they seem to understand each other and the more deeply they are moved by similar passions and hopes. These discoveries have led the group to a second...

Apologia Polemic And Theology

Athanasius passed his third 'exile* in concealment either in the city of Alexandria itself or among the monks of the Egyptian countryside, with whom he had close and long-standing ties of friendship. Antony himself had supported Athanasius by writing to Constantine in 336 and by visiting Alexandria in 338, and his followers remained well disposed toward the bishop regardless of his political and ecclesiastical vicissitudes.3 Pachomius had supported Athanasius at the time of his disputed election in 328, and Athanasius visited the Thebaid shortly afterward (Index 2). After their founder's death the Pachomian communities regarded Athanasius* cause as their own, and the abbot Theodore declared that in his generation God had raised up three great leaders Antony, Pachomius, and Athanasius. It was not without cause, therefore, that the dux Artemius searched Pachomian monasteries in Upper Egypt on suspicion that the fugitive bishop might be concealed there.4 The introduction to the History...

Romanticism Spinozism and Pantheism

Therefore, although the Romantics wanted to defend the idea of pantheism, as well as those assumed to be pantheists, against crude accusations, they themselves were not pantheists. Rather than maintain the identity of God and world, they maintained a dynamic coincidence of opposites they did not so much deny a personal God as challenge fixed and limited ideas of God and they affirmed the divine transcendence, albeit in terms of divine immanence. In the third edition of his Speeches, written long after the Romantic circle had broken up, Novalis had died, and the friendship between Schlegel and Schleiermacher had suffered severe blows, Schleiermacher explained, Novalis was cried down as an enthusiastic mystic by the prosaic, and Spinoza as godless by the literalists. It was incumbent upon me to protest against this view of Spinoza. 65 Schleiermacher himself remained true to his own method of oscillation, moving necessarily between the two poles of pantheism and personalism. Piety...

World Without Love The Greco Roman World and Early Christianity

While honor is an evident motivation for the ''philanthropy'' of the wealthy, there is little evidence of pity or compassion for the poor in ancient culture. In the ancient world, one gave in order to get. As mentioned earlier, eudaemonism is a perspective that defines the ethical life in relation to happiness or personal well-being. In Plato's Symposium, eudaemonism is the love-impelled ascent toward the good and immortality. But even with Plato's refined eudaemonism, the chief benefit of such love is always one's own benefit. As developed by Aristotle, the point of friendship and generous benevolence is the decorous conduct worthy of a noble person. Classical Greco-Roman understanding of ''charity'' focused only upon those of equal status with a view to advantage. The Aristotelian view was that wealth is useful in securing friendships not in just being amassed. The point of view was the reciprocity of the do ut des principle, ''I give that you may give.'' This principle of quid pro...

Faith Active in Love Reformation

The understanding of love in the Reformation period shifted fundamentally from the Augustinian-medieval theological developments. For the Reformers, love is no longer conceived in terms of Plato's highest good or Aristotle's crown of virtue ''baptized'' as God's grant of ''the crown of life,'' caritas, to those successfully ascending the ladder from vice to virtue. Already in one of the earliest Reformation writings, Luther's ''Disputation Against Scholastic Theology'' (1517), Aristotelian foundations for theology are decisively rejected ''An act of friendship is not . . . the most perfect means for obtaining the grace of God '' ''Virtually the entire Ethics of Aristotle is the worst enemy of grace.'' ''It is an error to say that no man can become a theologian without Aristotle.'' ''Indeed, no one can become a theologian unless he becomes one without Aristotle.'' ''Briefly, the whole of Aristotle is to theology as darkness is to light.'' ''The grace of God is not given so that good...

Love and the Individual Abelard and Bernard

Unfettered friendship, closeness to Abelard, meant more to Heloise than any slander directed to her as she declared her love for him to be completely pure. Heloise expresses a ''disinterested love'' for Abelard comparable to his expression of God's love for humankind. Heloise's refusal to color her freely given love by obligation through marriage is echoed by Richard de Fournival (1201-1260) in his ''Advice on Love'' '' M arried love is like a debt which one must pay, while the love of which I speak is a kind of grace freely bestowed. Although it is a mark of good manners to pay what one owes, still there is no more delightful love than that born of the gratuitous favor of an artless, ingenuous heart.'' Mews states ''Heloise's ideal of love integrated three normally distinct concepts amor, the passion or subjective experience of love dilectio, an act of choice by which one consciously decided to love another person and amicitia, or friendship.'' In one of her early letters, she...

The Immanent Trinity Only Incestuous Homoerotics

McCarthy makes a strong case for permanent lesbian and gay relationships as anomalies within the Catholic theology of marriage, for that theology is not an exclusive sanctification of heterosexual love, for m ale-female complementarity does not produce the goods of marriage but is produced by it (McCarthy 1997 384). He thereby criticizes the prioritizing of Genesis 1.27, using Vatican II to argue that c reation as male and female is used as the paradigmatic example, but the example does not exclude other ways of imagining humanity's social nature (McCarthy 1997 382 see also McCarthy 1998 and Rogers 1999a). In this respect, the medievalist Marilyn McCord Adams rightly extols and at the same time questions the same-gender models of trinitarian love within the trinitarian symbolics of Richard of St Victor and Aelred of Rievaulx. She questions them on the grounds of their exclusion of women-women relations (going back to Cicero's exaltation of male-male friendship as the highest and most...

The 20th Century Revival of Christian Zionism

An indication of how seriously fundamentalists take the military aspect of their apocalyptic scenario can be seen from the content of the itinerary used by Jerry Falwell in his Friendship Tour to Israel in 1983. It included meetings with top Israeli government and military officials and an,

The Reality Of Violence In La Tin America

The situation in Guatemala is depicted in powerful terms by Thomas Melville, who was a Maryknoll missioner there. His words speak for themselves During the last eighteen months, these three rightist groups have slain more than 2800 people intellectuals, students, union and peasant leaders, and others who have tried in one way or another to organize the people and combat the evils of Guatemalan society. I personally know a man, a good friend and daily communicant, who accused a Christian union leader of

Bonhoeffers Recovery of the Political Significance of the Visible Church

It has to make itself distinct and to be a community which hears the Apocalypse. It has to testify to its alien nature and to resist the false principle of inner-worldliness. Friendship between the church and the world is not normal, but abnormal. The community must suffer like Christ, without wonderment. The cross stands visibly over the community. (Bonhoeffer 1965 324)

The Life of the Church Liturgy Monasticism Church Buildings Pilgrimage

Pilgrimage plays an important role for members of all Syriac churches. The most important of these is the pilgrimage to Jerusalem, which throughout history was undertaken by members of all churches involved. It entitles the pilgrim to the epithet of maqdshaya (Syriac) or maqdasi (Arabic), 'holy one', often indicated by a cross tattooed on arm or hand pilgrimages to a variety of other holy sites are popular. Such pilgrimages might consist of individual travel to some of the famous monasteries or churches of the tradition, but more often takes the form of visiting specific local monasteries or churches on the feast day, the dukhrana, of its saint. At such gatherings Holy Liturgy is celebrated or individual prayers at the shrine are said, and are followed by a communal meal and often by traditional dancing. These shahra-s, as they are called, are important communal gatherings where old friends and family meet and new ties are forged through friendship and courtship.

Ten Commandments Or Four

John 15 17 - These things I command (ENTELLOMAI) you that ye agape one another. This continues the thought of the above scripture. Love among Christians proves friendship to Jesus because it is in obedience to one of His few commands. Though this was an answer to Judas' (not Iscariot) question, I believe it should be applied to all Christianity. Though this discourse was given to His disciples, I believe it is to be taken as a general instruction to all Christianity because of the total time frame it covers.

The Background and Main Theme of Nathan the Wise

In the characters, words, and deeds of the various dramatis personae, we have to sense, then, Lessing's idea of humanity. But what is the subject of this drama What place does it occupy in the history of German literature According to H. A. Korff, Lessing's Nathan the Wise is the very first example of the German literature of humanity H-umamtatsdichtung) and a great anthem to human friendship and brotherhood. 21 Dilthey seems to endorse this view of IKorffs when he says

Action Guides And Christian Ethics

Are important, e.g. friendship and its application by subsidiary rules. Central to the discussion is the possibility of agape being universally applicable. (Outka's is the most philosophically sophisticated examination of love as the distinctive theme of Christian ethics in the literature.)

Faith Formed by Love Scholasticism

While Thomas Aquinas stressed friendship in marriage, his indebtedness to Aristotelian philosophy (''the female is a misbegotten male'') reinforced a crass view that women are biologically inferior to men, hardly a view conducive to reciprocal and mutual love relationships. In his Summa Theologica where

Biblical Basis Creation stories

Bodies are the means by which people keep in touch, literally and metaphorically, with one another and the outer world. Dualism is unsatisfactory because it detaches spirit from body. All human relationships, from mere acquaintance to close friendship, including of course erotic relationships, depend upon hearing, sight, or touch. In this 'materialism' the Christian concept of incarnation finds a foothold in due time, the Word of God was made flesh and dwelt among us, communicating with us humanly.

The crucifixion of nature and the realism of the cross

I wish to emphasise that part of the 'meaning' of the cross is dead (human) nature. If we are to accept the point that in the cross all attempts to save the world are indeed crossed, such wisdom and judgment can only be maintained if we follow in the steps of the God-body the crucifixion is a political death in nature. How then might the cross of the God-body be construed and practised as internal to the Christocentric practice of friendship towards fellowship in the Spirit. Through this section, I have been sketching an answer to the following questions in what ways may the cross of Jesus Christbe construed as a guiding protocol for Christian practice. How might the cross of the God-body - as an un natural event - be construed and practised as internal to the Christocentric practice of friendship towards fellowship in the Spirit As befits the complexity of the concept of nature itself, the response offered is itself complex. The crucifixion of nature invites, supports and reinforces...

Biblical Views of Love

The concept of love in the Hebrew Bible reflects the development of biblical texts over a long period of time and in changing social and cultural contexts. Furthermore, the Hebrew Bible includes many types of literature poetry, prophecy, wisdom, law codes, and narratives. Hence to assume that a concept of love can be abstracted or systematized from the rich and varied literature of the Hebrew Bible is misleading. A unified fundamental meaning of the Hebrew word-stem ''to love'' can hardly be determined because the concept covers a broad field of meaning ranging from preferences (''for he loved the soil,'' 2 Chron. 26 10) and proverbs (''Better is a dinner of vegetables where love is than a fatted ox and hatred with it,'' Prov. 15 17), to the erotic poetry of the Song of Songs (''Upon my bed at night I sought him whom my soul loves,'' 3 1), spousal affection (''Isaac took Rebekah, and she became his wife and he loved her,'' Gen. 24 67), and friendship (''Jonathan loved him David as his...

Popular Cultures Religious Vitality Augustine

Behind this view of a true religion which adores the world as a means to worship God is Augustine's fundamental principle of the human condition, namely that the heart is restless until it finds peace in God. It is with this recognition that Augustine framed his Confessions, his autobiographical examination of his own restless life. Looking back he understood that his life had been a succession of grasping for some enduring consolation - ideas, bodily gratifications, social esteem, friendships, metaphysical schemes - to which he became attached, eventually grew weary, then moved on. Driving this restlessness, he concluded, was an unslakable desire for the true God, a desire that kept pressing him to fix onto some aspect of reality larger than himself. God alone can satisfy this longing the world can function only as a set of signs through which God is encountered.

The cosmic heights of deep ecology

In summary, the common realm of God, nature and humanity is displaced by the realm of Nature-cosmic self, neighbourliness is replaced by interior cultivation, otherness is collapsed into the interior will-to-maintenance of the cosmic self, the social life of humanity receives no clear articulation and the place of human beings is not decentred but rather by the route of inwardness is placed at the centre of the cosmos. Here deep ecology appears as decisively modern centred on the interior life of the individual who creates and preserves the cosmos. I am proposing a different view by contrast to self-realisation, I suggest friendship to interconnectedness, I suggest social relationality to cosmic conatus, I propose the world as gift. In sum, a relational account that accounts for the proximity and difference of nature and which - contra this deep stoicism - 'shifts'. Thus the crucial dynamic is not 'from one self to another', but friendship the crucial ontology is not that ofa cosmic...

Dead Sea Scrolls and the Gospels History and Propaganda

A useful point to note is that unlike Jesus, James and other members of the early Church who were steeped in religious duties and concerns, Paul was a man wise to the ways of the largely secular Graeco-Roman world. He was Saul of Tarsus born into a wealthy Hellenised Jewish family and a Roman citizen - in short, a child of privilege. He possessed rights and connections that his co-religionists living in their cloistered communities in Jerusalem and Qumran could scarcely dream about. The Acts of the Apostles, of which Paul may be regarded the hero, shows him to have enjoyed the friendship of high Roman officials. As we already saw, Eisenman's research suggests that he was actually a Roman agent as we explore further, we shall see that this has a high degree of probability. At this time, however, it is sufficient for us to note that Paul and the members of the early Church came from backgrounds that were worlds apart.

Reply to Argument III

I do not think so and I suggest that, at the least, his position faces an enormous burden of proof. First, consider again Rundle's examples. Surely the whole idea that you are disappointed over a loss at bridge is that the realization that you lost and your desire to win is what (along with other factors) brings about (causally contributes to) your feeling disappointed. Rundle uses a humorous alternative (viz. losing the lottery) to cajole us into thinking there is no causation going on but adjust the example to something less remote (e.g. maybe the real cause of disappointment is that you are about to lose a friendship), and the example seems to resist Rundle's noncausal analysis. Surely you may be fully justified in believing that your disappointment stems from your belief that a friendship is on the rocks and not confusing this with your disappointment at failing to win 350 million dollars with your lottery ticket, which had a one in a trillion chance of winning. Consider also his...

The politics of deep ecology

With all particulars'.60 The implications of this position are bolder than is obvious at first sight for the key relationship of friendship is secured through this identification. Yet the friendship is construed in such fashion that it is possible that we, as a species, shall be required, through our sensibility of identification, to give up our interests in survival. If our interests lead to the diminution or termination ofthe realisation ofother entities, then our interests are called into question.

Message of the Dead Sea Scrolls

It is helpful also to bear in mind the following facts first, unlike James and some other early figures of Christianity, Paul did not know Jesus personally. Next, Paul was a privileged Roman citizen who enjoyed the friendship and patronage of Roman authorities at the highest levels of the empire. This fact raises some intriguing questions about the role actually played by Paul it suggests that he was much more of a politician than a religious figure. This too is entirely in keeping with a theocratic movement. A theocracy succeeds not because of its message but due to the political skill of its leaders.

Christian Love as Self Denial

Another way of expressing this is to say that Christian love is self-denial's love, which is the boundless and passionate giving of ourselves to others in such a way as to drive out selfishness in ourselves by placing the neighbour as a middle term or third party between self-love and its 'other I' in the beloved or friend (WL 54). As Kierkegaard sees it, self-denial is 'Christianity's essential form' and is what distinguishes Christian love most of all from other forms of love such as erotic love (Elskov) and friendship (Venskab) (56). These forms of love are based on personal preference and thus are exclusive in nature, loving one person above or in contrast to all others, whereas 'self-denial's boundlessness in giving itself means not to exclude a single one' (52). 'The Christian doctrine', Kierkegaard asserts, 'is to love the neighbor, to love the whole human race, all people, even the enemy, and not to make exceptions, neither of preference nor of aversion' (19).

Against the reenchantment of nature

Such a perspective is helpful in thinking through the relation between the production of nature and locality, the relation of space and place within a political theology. For the construal of place must be referred to the fellowship of the common realm. And consideration of the social production ofnature under capitalism cannot be separated from the histories and cultural memories of peoples. The resurrection of the God-body invites the socialising of ecological relations to refer place to fellowship to refer space to active subjects living in friendship in the common realm.

Open Resistance or Cautious Compromise

Augustine's heirs have been more sympathetic to the continuities between Christianity and culture than have Tertullian's. Indeed, Augustine was a post-Constantinian thinker who was trying to understand the place of Christian faith in a culture where Christianity had finally gained legal standing. While Augustine thought the course of history through in terms of the unending tension between the heavenly and earthly cities, he allowed at the outset that the underlying desire that kept both in play was a love for the metaphysical goodness of being - a goodness of being which can be found in both cities. According to Augustine, there cannot be a nature in which there is no good. 50 Every being, insofar as it exists, is good. It is human concupiscence - our boundless, pulsating, heedless desire - that corrupts this goodness by latching onto creatures to satisfy our craving for God. By desiring finite goods (e.g., power, friendship, romantic partners, food, material goods, comfort) for more...

The Second Delegation of Symmachus

In July 384 C.E.,Valentinian II appointed Quintus Aurelius Symmachus prefect of Rome and his good friend Vettius Agorius Praetextatus praetorian prefect of Italy, Illyricum, and Africa. These appointments ranked among the most important in the administration and represent the Realpolitik of the western court. Valentinian was young, inexperienced, and no match for the military might of Magnus Maximus' court at Trier. This was no time to alienate the Roman senate. Moreover, the conflict between Valentinian's Arian mother Justina and the staunchly orthodox Ambrose led the senators to believe that Ambrose was out of favor and that this might be a good opportunity to renew their protest against Gratian's edicts, particularly the removal of the altar of Victory. Symmachus must have felt confident leading another embassy to Milan, where Valentinian, the twelve-year-old half-brother of Gratian, was presiding over a weakened court.

The Emergent Tradition

The emergent tradition's rejection of the modern mythos of politics as statecraft is founded on theological judgments concerning the church, salvation, and eschatology that differ from those that underwrite the dominant tradition. Refusing the modern nation-state's claim to the right to organize human community in its own image, the emergent tradition sees in the practices of the church the true politics. This is to say, the emergent tradition finds the political correlate of the Christian mythos, not in the secular state and civil society, but in the church (Hauerwas 1991 Milbank 1990). Hence, Christian political engagement takes shape in a distinctly theological politics that is not reducible to a Weberian correlation of abstract values with secular political options. The church is no longer viewed as the apolitical (or only generally political) custodian of values or worldviews, and its mission ceases to be the advancement of Western liberalism. Rather, Christian politics takes...

From distorted sociality to the common realm Godbody

These commitments are central to the argument of this book. However, we may discern an omission in the discussion so far how are we to think of the life, death and resurrection of Christ in the context of a political theology of nature. How are they internal to a pedagogy of fellowship and friendship Of course, as I stressed in chapter 2, the theological, transcendental inquiry practised here begins from the career of Jesus of Nazareth. Yet I have pressed the insights drawn from such a beginning towards the consideration of a Trinitarian doctrine of creation. What happens if we now return from such a theology of creatureliness - a Trinitarian theology of ecological nature (human and non-human) - to consider explicitly how the God-body, crucified and resurrected, may inform and support the theology of creaturely relations proposed here In this final chapter, I explore the matter of the cross and resurrection as internal guides to un natural relations and the criticism of humanised and...

Fecundity and the Social Body

Within the household, sexual desire is domesticated that is, it follows the lead of common life. Couples will have their days or years of indomitable passion, mixed together with frequent times of minimal or subsistence-level desire. Childbearing and housekeeping show Hildebrand's romantic I-Thou to be an infrequent delight that is hardly a basis for love or community. The desires of the household are less directed to mutual self-absorption than to common, outwardly purposeful work. It is through the outward movement of shared activity where friendship and affection grow. In the economy of desire, passion is work, and sexual desire is the end of social regeneration. In contrast, passion in the household, for its own sake, is only modestly regenerative. It is simply play, and because play, it is free to be nothing at all, that is, to be spontaneous. In good Pauline tradition, the practices of the household settle desire, and ironically, sexual practices are expected to exceed mutual...

The entering into Men of the Elvenstrain is indeed represented as part of the Divine Plan for the ennoblement of the

These Years came to an end when Manwe released Melkor from his imprisonment. For a time, the Dark Lord pretended friendship with the Eldar, but he turned back to the darkness. With Ungoliant, he destroyed the Trees, stole the Silmarils and fled back to the north of Middle-earth. Seeking revenge, Feanor led a great part of the Noldor out of Valinor and back to Beleriand a part of Middle-earth . thus Elendil established the Kingdom on the shore of Middle-earth, inheriting a hatred of Sauron, friendship of the Elves, and a knowledge of the True God. Letters p.206

Retrospect and prospect

We must also call attention to the fact that although to a large degree the kind of power seen in governments and in institutions, including even those of the Church, was in contrast with that seen in the incarnation, the cross, and the resurrection, some governments proved less of an obstacle to the Gospel than did others. The Sassanid and the Arab states, for example, the one dominated by Zoroastrianism and the other by Islam, made the course of Christianity very difficult. The Christian Roman Emperors were both an aid and a hindrance. The order which they gave and their protection to the Church were of assistance, but their efforts at the control of the Church often compromised the Gospel and their friendship encouraged in the Church a kind of power which was the opposite of that seen in the Gospel. Much depended on the character of the monarch. Those who, like Alfred the Great, were earnestly endeavouring to rule as Christians were of more help than those who were not-The great...

The Vocation of the Poet

This analysis did not, of course, come instantaneously to the young Romantic Coleridge, and it seems that he was content for some time to accept the tensions and celebrate the new life that he saw all around - as may be seen in the Conversation Poems, and during his early friendship with William Wordsworth. From such a position, pantheism was an obviously attractive theological step, and Coleridge and Wordsworth would discuss Spinoza together often whilst working on Lyrical Ballads.21 Pantheism was, however, fundamentally unsatisfactory for Coleridge, as it removed any possibility of personality in God, or of human freedom. Here, perhaps, is Coleridge's most pressing question in his life as a young poet he wished to ascribe both personality and will to both God and humanity. Again, and perhaps better, he came to believe God to be personal and volitional, knew the same to be true of humanity, and sought ways to understand these things. This may be done in a trivial way by separating...

The two shall become one

3 While traditionalists suggest that valid sexual ethics must be Christian, liberals suggest that valid personal ethics must be sexual. Their characteristic overstatement has been to assimilate 'relationship' with 'erotic relationship'. Any relationship which is evidently not erotic is deemed to be minor, or undeveloped, or frustrated, or dishonest. Friendship is inadequately distinguished from romantic love and becomes hard to place. Human dealings with one another are placed along one scale, ranging from casual to intimate according to their degree of physical commitment so that sexuality is allowed to colonize human life and human love. How, for instance, can we say that this husband and wife are friends if 'friend' has no distinct meaning from 'lover' The very attempt to build up the significance of personal relationships seems to make them at the same time oddly one-dimensional.

The mendicant orders the able Dominicans

Were the friend he loved most in the world.'26 The same Jordan also expressed his love for Diana of Andalo in her Dominican convent in Bologna.27 His letters to her indicate that the Dominicans continued the male-female friendships of the religious life that had formerly characterised the Cistercian rapprochement with women.28 27 Tugwell, ed., Early Dominicans, 401-8. Also Brian Patrick McGuire, Friendship and Community The Monastic Experience (Kalamazoo, Mich. Cistercian Publications, 1988), 394-8. 28 'The Cistercians and the Transformation of Monastic Friendships', in Brian Patrick McGuire, Friendship and Faith Cistercian Men, Women, and their Stories, 1100-1250 (Aldershot Ashgate, 2002).

Human freedom natural contingencies

This way of the attempted re-presentation of the relevance of standard Christian models of human responsibility for nature is rich and varied see Thomas Sieger Derr, Ecology and Human Need (Philadelphia Westminster Press, 1975) who continues to use the language of 'mastery' of nature Robert Fancy, Wind and Sea Obey Him Approaches to a Theology of Nature (London SCM Press, 1982) Douglas John Hall, Imaging God Dominion as Stewardship (Grand Rapids Eerdmans and New York Friendship Press, 1986) the early Bonhoeffer Dietrich Bonhoeffer, Creation and Fall A Theological Interpretation of Genesis 1-3 (London SCM Press, 1959 lectures given in 1933).

Is it possible to have friends Is Jesus really present in the Holy Eucharist

In our search for community with others we are often at odds with our fellow humans. We want the warmth and support of friendship but we frequently find ourselves fighting with those who are our friends. Still we do experience friendship often enough to know that it is possible among humans. Indeed, in those moments of communion, we suspect that self-giving affection is the only authentically human way to live. In friendship, particularly in married friendship, we find that we are taken out of ourselves and united with the other. The experience is not usually as intense as the mystical interlude, but it is very strong nevertheless. In the highest moments of human friendship we forget about ourselves and we leave behind our fears, our inhibitions, our restraints we remain fully who we are. Indeed we are more fully ourselves at those times than at most other times, and yet we exist for and through and in the other person. We are concerned about them in a way that we normally reserve for...

Family and Social Reproduction

If friendship, traditionally defined, is walking side by side, hand in hand, marriage is gazing face to face, an I-Thou. If friendship is oriented to common social goods and the good, the marriage partnership is unique because, unlike typical partnerships that are based in common work or an outward vocation, the marital union is self-directed. It is an exclusive inter-subjectivity of two. Conjugal love tends to a community where two persons constitute a closed union a relationship in which the regard of each one of the two parties is turned exclusively upon the other (Hildebrand 1984 5-6).

Can personalism be Christian

Nygren treated the emphasis on friendship in the Fourth Gospel with a certain anxiety, as a decline from agape but Christian personalism need not be so nervous. To make friends is to find out each other's value, to enjoy each other's company and to want each other's fulfilment. Finite as we are, we are limited in our friendships. Nobody but God can appreciate the endless variety of human beings the attention span of each of us is tiny and our days are short but friendship is not intrinsically exclusive. Friendship is not an excuse for turning one's back upon most of the world, but can be a model for the way any human being might be appreciated. Rather than a rival to agape, the appreciative love which is philia is like a pattern sum ready worked out, a picture of possibilities (Oppenheimer 1973 188-92, 1983 118-21, 132-9).

Nathan and the Education of Humanity

About this time Saladin, faced with a financial crisis in the national treasury, succumbs to his sister Sittah's idea of summoning the rich and wise Nathan to the palace as part of a trick. At his sister's suggestion, he reluctantly stoops to asking Nathan a question that will be almost impossible for a Jew to answer, thus hoping to frighten him into paying money so as to be pardoned for not answering Saladin's question. Nathan shrewdly evades the trap by telling the Sultan the parable of the three rings. Deeply moved by Nathan's virtuous and wise character, Saladin humbly bows to him and begs his pardon for the insipid wiles he had attempted. Nathan and Saladin thus become comrades, bound together by trust and friendship.

The attitude of Israel and the attitude of the Church

Notice it says they are enemies for your sakes. And they are beloved for the fathers' sakes. We need to be in an attitude of friendship, devotion and service regardless of what their attitude toward us or toward the gospel is. They are to become our brethren in the end. The same goes for any unsaved people.

Bloody Records of Christianity

With the death of the martyred daughter of Theon, the mathematician, there remained no possibility for the Neo-platonists to continue their school at Alexandria. During the life-time of the youthful Hypatia her friendship and influence with Orestes, the governor of the city, had assured the philosophers security and protection against their murderous

Redemption Between Reception And Response

2 This essay was written for Don Cupitt's Festschrift, New Directions in Philosophical Theology Essays in Honour of Don Cupitt, ed. Gavin Hyman (Aldershot Ashgate, 2004). In including it in this collection I wanted to retain its origins and testify to my friendship with Don Cupitt despite of and across our differences.

Traditional monasticism

Cluny was blessed with able abbots who lived long, ruled well and had time to groom their successors. At the beginning of our period there was one abbot, Pons, who apparently was incapable of shouldering the burden of the house. His successor, Peter the Venerable (d. 1156), was among the most brilliant and capable of all the Cluniac abbots. Peter has left the imprint of his abbacy in the collection of letters he made. Here he endowed posterity with a representative sample of his friendships and commitments across Europe.5

The Beginning of the Pantheismusstreit

Shortly after Lessing's death, the Jewish philosopher Moses Mendelssohn, who had lived with him in intimate friendship for over thirty years, had unceasingly sought with him the truth, had conversed with him repeatedly, by letter and face to face, on those important religious-philosophical matters, 16 determined to write something on the character of our Lessing. 17 He set about preparing for this task, but poor health prevented smooth progress. Meanwhile, Elise Reimarus, a close friend of Lessing for some fifteen years and through him a good friend of Mendelssohn as well, brought him unexpected news. By letter she informed him that that Jacobi, knowing that Mendelssohn intended to write a work commemorating Lessing, had sent her the following message

The Ethics and Summa of Theology

With interior passions, chiefly fortitude and temperance. In the fifth book, the subject is the virtue of external actions, namely justice. Aristotle's sixth book considers the intellectual virtues. The seventh, eighth, and ninth books describe things that follow on virtues or accompany them, namely continence and friendship. Aristotle's tenth book, which is the (short) third member of Thomas's original trichotomy, completes the treatment of happiness, individually and in the city.106 Compare Thomas's own order in the second part of the Summa. First, Thomas separates the definitions of virtue and the other principles or elements much more strictly from the treatment of particular virtues. Thomas insists, second, on the sufficiency of the four cardinal virtues as a comprehensive organization for all moral virtue. They are the organizing principles, and friendship or continence must be subordinated to them pedagogically. In the Summa, friendship becomes a quasi-potential part of...

Saturday Or Sunday

As an example, a good friend of mine was very upset because his neighbor did some work on Sunday. Really now, there is no place in the Bible where we are told not to work on Sunday. In fact, Christians argue about whether the Sabbath is Saturday or Sunday. Some reject the Sabbath (Saturday) and keep the Lord's day (Sunday). That is a tradition and commandment of men.

Argument V

All the sentiments of the human mind, gratitude, resentment, love, friendship, approbation, blame, pity, emulation, envy, have a plain reference to the state and situation of man, and are calculated for preserving the existence, and promoting the activity of such a being in such circumstances. It seems therefore unreasonable to transfer such sentiments to a supreme existence, or to suppose him actuated by them and the phenomena, besides, of the universe will not support us in such a theory. All our ideas, derived from the senses, are confessedly false and illusive and cannot, therefore, be supposed to have place in a supreme intelligence. (Hume 1988, p. 27)

Stephen R Holmes

Samuel Taylor Coleridge (1772-1834) has suffered celebrity. A pair of poems and a drug habit have been enough to convince many that they knew all that was worth knowing about him. It has for too long been forgotten that he left pioneering writings in perhaps half a dozen different academic fields, and influenced by his friendship and conversation a fair proportion of those who were to define the cultural life of the Victorian age. He is becoming known again 1 it is to the credit of several pioneers that the theological community rediscovered him rather early on, and so this essay has many distinguished precursors from which to learn.2

Michael J Baxter

If the success of Murray's compatibility thesis (as it might be called) were measured by the reception of We Hold These Truths, then it would have to be judged as very successful. The book was widely hailed as a milestone in US Catholic thought, so much so that Murray appeared on the cover of Time (although his good friend and publisher of the magazine, Henry Luce, certainly had a hand in that). The cover article, a careful summary of the book's argument, gave the compatibility thesis national exposure. The fact that the book was published in the same year Kennedy was elected president added to the sense

James D G Dunn

My interest in the Gospel of Mark began when in 1972 I embarked on doctoral work at Cambridge (England) under the expert supervision of Dr Ernst Bammel, whose recent death has brought great sadness to all those who knew him and benefited from his immense erudition and scholarship. My fascination with the Gospel has further developed during my time of teaching and research in the Department of Religious Studies at the University of Newcastle. My thanks, in the first instance, therefore, go to those students of mine whose diligence and enthusiasm has always made the business of teaching such a pleasant and stimulating one for me. This book was written over a period of two years, and for the most part in a number of concentrated sessions spent in Cambridge and in Ha-warden. I should also like to thank, therefore, the Staff of the Cambridge University Library (that venerable institution within whose redoubtable walls I have spent so many productive hours ), the Bursar and Staff of...

Greek Laughter

This is the first book to offer an integrated reading of ancient Greek attitudes to laughter. Taking material from literature, myth, philosophy, religion and social mores, it analyses both the theory and the practice of laughter as a richly revealing expression of Greek values and mentalities. From the exuberantly laughing gods of Homeric epic to the condemnation of laughter by some early Church fathers, the subject provides a fascinating means of investigating complex features of cultural psychology. Greek society developed distinctive institutions (including the symposium and certain religious festivals) for the celebration of laughter as a capacity which could bridge the gap between humans and gods but it also feared laughter for its power to expose individuals and groups to shame and even violence. Caught between ideas of pleasure and pain, friendship and enmity, play and seriousness, laughter became a theme of recurrent interest in various contexts. Employing a sophisticated...

Trees Today

In view of the millions upon millions of dollars of taxpayers' money given to Israel, it is suitable that a forest in honor of the U.S.A. Government, American Freedom Forest, was proposed It is to serve as a living monument to the friendship and close cooperation existing between the citizens and governments of the United States and Israel. (B'nai B'rith Messenger 7 8 60).

Puppetmaster of P2

Gelli's (and Calvi's) great influence extended far beyond the borders of Italy or even Europe. In 1977, with the connivance of Paul Marcinkus of the Vatican Bank, Calvi had opened a branch of the Banco Ambrosiano in Managua, Nicaragua. Its purpose was to help Marcinkus unload a large quantity of Banco Ambrosiano shares without drawing the attention of the Italian authorities. This was facilitated through Gelli's friendship with the Nicaraguan dictator Anastasio Somoza who received several million dollars for the favour.

The Works Of Love

Kierkegaard's theology of hope thus anticipates the third term in the trilogy of passions that pre-eminently characterize the Christian life, namely love, which for Kierkegaard is the only thing that makes life worth living and is the only true sign that one is a Christian (WL 375). Kierkegaard's most substantive contribution to Christian thought is perhaps to be found in Works of Love (1847), in which Christian love is profoundly probed in distinction from pagan, worldly, natural, and merely human forms of love such as erotic love and friendship.23 There really is nothing comparable to this work in the history of Christian thought, yet it is still relatively unknown and unexplored in contemporary Christian theology and ethics. Here, however, I shall touch on only a few of the main themes and distinctions of this work, particularly as they relate to two budding sociopolitical movements of the time, namely communism and the emancipation of women.


Strong, in Examiner, 1880 Such is the nature of union with Christ, such I mean, is the nature of every believer s union with Christ. For, whether he knows it or not, every Christian has entered into just such a partnership as this. It is this and this only which constitutes him a Christian, and which makes possible a Christian church. We may, indeed, be thus united to Christ, without being fully conscious of the real nature of our relation to him. We may actually possess the kernel, while as yet we have regard only to the shell we may seem to ourselves to be united to Christ only by an external bond, while after all it is an inward and spiritual bond that makes us his. God often reveals to the Christian the mystery of the gospel, which is Christ in him the hope of glory, at the very time that he is seeking only some nearer access to a Redeemer outside of him. Trying to find a union of cooperation or of sympathy, he is amazed to learn that there is already established a union with...

The PriesTHOOD

The Community of Sant' Egidio began in Italy. Sant' Egidio is a parish church in Rome, where, in 1968, a group of high-school students wanted to take the Gospel more seriously. They formed a community that aimed to promote friendships with the poor, the elderly, immigrants, and the imprisoned to help them overcome loneliness, fear, and prejudice. It is a movement that has spread to 40,000 members in 60 countries and has had notable success in peacemaking efforts during the civil wars in Mozambique and Bosnia. Such movements are very much in accord with the efforts of the late Pope John Paul II and the present Pope Benedict XVI, who have attempted to encourage young people in particular to pursue a deeper form of spiritual life in a context where many view the Christian life as a mechanical performance of routine religious exercises.

Defining the Virtues

So far the consideration has proceeded in an apparently philosophical manner. The next Question asks whether this unified complex of moral virtues can exist without charity (65.2). Thomas's reply is nuanced. If virtue means something aimed towards a naturally attainable human end, it can be acquired by human effort. This virtue can exist without charity, as was the case among many pagans. Still, pagan virtues do not completely and truly satisfy the notion (ratio) of virtue. The notion is satisfied only by virtues that lead to the highest human end, which is supernatural. Strictly speaking, there can be no virtue without charity. Moral virtues are infused by God, together with the prudence on which they depend, after the infusion of charity. It follows then from what has been said that only the infused virtues are complete, and are called virtues simply, because they order the human being rightly to the last end simply speaking. Thomas holds that charity cannot be infused without the...

Elizabeth Stuart

However, as Haffner notes, though marriage has an eschatological dimension, it itself is dissolved in the eschaton when the marriage between the Lamb and his Bride is complete. Marriage - whether heterosexual or homosexual - ends at death. It constantly points beyond itself, preparing the partners for a greater consummation. The church has in the past seen same-sex (particularly male) friendship as anticipating heaven in a manner marriage could not because unlike marriage friendship could survive death. Friendship is to a large extent the answer to melancholia in the Christian tradition. It is ironic that in Western modernity it has been the lot of gay people to keep the tradition of passionate same-sex friendship alive. Gay people have then functioned as uncomfortable reminders of an eschatological horizon that the church has largely lost sight of in modernity

The church

Within this context, the church can only adequately fulfill its vocation if it becomes a messianic fellowship of mature and responsible disciples. Here Moltmann, with his eye especially on the German Protestant scene, proposes radical reform and renewal of the church. His criticism is of the extent to which the church is still the civil religion of society, a pastoral church for all the people, unable to take up a critical stance in relation to society, unable to foster real community and active Christian commitment. The ideal is a church of the people, a fellowship of committed disciples called to responsible participation in messianic mission. Membership of the church must therefore be voluntary (from this follows Moltmann's critique of infant baptism) and characterized not only by faith but also by discipleship and a distinctive lifestyle. The messianic fellowship will also be a free society of equals, since the Spirit frees and empowers all Christians for messianic service (from...

The dearly departed

The ancient Christian idea of the communion of saints, found in the Apostles' Creed, came to be understood as the commerce between three groups the Church Triumphant (saints in heaven), the Church Expectant (souls suffering in purgatory), and the Church Militant (faithful Christians on earth). The saints in heaven combine an empathy for the trials of the living on earth, having once lived among us, and an enviable access to God. Very early in the history of the church, Christians came to view the dead saints as invisible companions and protectors who offered friendship to the living and could be approached to intercede with God on behalf of those who prayed. Graves of the martyrs became shrines for feasting and prayer, ritual sites where the poor and the wealthy mixed openly - and often outside the regulation of the church's hierarchy. The graves developed a two-fold purpose they became places where ordinary men and women could approach God through the searching and merciful presence...

The Language of Love

Some of the many Greek terms for love no longer have much currency in our vocabulary. Storge, a more literary term for familial love or parental affection, and epithymia, a term associated with libido or desire have not had a significant impact on the Western vocabulary of love. Philia, eros, and agape, on the other hand, have significantly influenced Western languages and ideas. Philia, with meanings of friendship, close family relations, and human solidarity, is familiar in its English forms of philadelphia for brotherly love and philanthropy for benevolence. These expressions of concern for the well-being of others, both of which are present in the Greek New Testament, are reversed in the related term philander. Eros is familiar in modern languages in the related forms of the word ''erotic.'' In the eighth and ninth books of his Nicomachean Ethics, Aristotle also diverges from Plato in discussing friendship as a love of benevolence rather than a love of desire. Thus the guiding...

Acquiring Gnosis

Acquiring gnosis usually involves a spiritual friendship with a Gnostic elder or tau and receiving esoteric teachings and initiation within a Gnostic community,- in Gnostic traditions, the teacher and community arc a vehicle of the light-transmission. However, the purpose of a Gnostic t acher and circle are to suppo '. one's own continuum of spiritual practice and spiritual living, through which one is able to experience th-' Living Yeshua and recognize and realize the light-

The Last Things

Abbas Magnum Photographers

The arrival of the second millennium brought a sea-change in Christian sensibility, at least in Western Europe. A passionate devotion to the human Jesus (as friend and lover), deep personal friendships, the lofty ideals of courtly love, and a renewed interest in the Song of Songs showed up in the writings of St Anselm of Canterbury ( .1033 1109), Peter Abelard (1079-1142), St Hildegard of Bingen (1098-1179), St Bernard of Clairvaux (1090-1153), and other mystics. All this heralded a new sensibility which flourished with St Francis (1181 2-1226), St Clare (1193 4-1253), and the popular piety inspired by the Franciscan movement it has left its lasting witness not only in writing but also in fresh developments in liturgy, painting, sculpture, and Gothic architecture.

Gay Marriage

Mark Vernon - after Michel Foucault - has presented a version of this argument in terms of friendship. It is not just that same-sex relationships - gay marriages - challenge society to recognize a greater range of human affections than hitherto, but that such relationships deepen what has been previously understood by friendship. They allow everything that can be troubling in affection, tenderness, friendship, fidelity, camaraderie, and companionship to escape the channels in which they are normally contained and form new alliances . . . tying together . . . unforeseen lines of force. And these affective intensities challenge the churches to remember that the family to which they are called by Jesus is not one of biology, but of friendship (John 15.15). Christian identity is not to be constituted by human parents, patrilineal and matrilineal affiliations, but by sharing in Christ's blood, given for all. That friendships between men, and between women, might be erotic, and that erotic...

Blood Lines

Acting behind the veil of the Masonic Lodge, wave after wave of new thinking rolled into America. Later, this chapter will discuss how the Philadelphians, organized by the Masons34, would influence Saint-Simon through his friendship with the Philadelphian leader Jacgues Rigomer-Bazin. Saint-Simon wrote The New Christianity and his ideas generated religious and communistic experiments35 that eventually would influence the Mormons to adopt communism.


THE MASONIC TEACHING Masonry teaches man to practice charity and benevolence, to protect chastity,* to respect the ties of blood and friendship, to adopt the principles and revere the ordinances* of religion, to assist the feeble, guide the blind,* raise up the downtrodden, shelter the orphan, guard the altar,* support the Government,* inculcate morality,* promote learning, love man, fear God,* implore His mercy and hope for happiness.

Jane Shaw

In 1694, some 300 years later, a high Tory Anglican called Mary Astell wrote A Serious Proposal to the Ladies in which she suggested that single women should have a monastery or a religious retirement (as she phrased it, to avoid giving offence to the scrupulous and injudicious by names which though innocent in themselves, have been abus'd by Superstitious Practices ) where they could develop their spiritual life and increase their intellectual learning. This was to have a double aspect, being not only a Retreat from the World, for those who desire that advantage but likewise an institution and precious discipline, to fit us to do the greatest good in it (Astell 1694 60-1). At the heart of Astell's proposal were a belief that women too have souls and the faculty of reasoning, and should develop them a desire to cultivate piety in the high Anglican manner, observing the feasts and fasts of the church in community and a strong advocacy of female friendship. The proposal was directed at...

James Alison

But part of the Catholic experience has been that alongside the way in which this process of moral and spiritual growth is happening as young people start to react to the way the gay thing is irrupting into our midst, has also been the way in which Church authority appears to regard the gay thing as exclusively an issue to do with sex. And simultaneously to ignore the experienced moral dimensions that the gay thing has in the lives of those who are undergoing it. This leads to a disjunction being lived by us as, on the one hand we learn all about good Catholic values like solidarity, refusal to beat up on the weak, respect for the other. On the other hand, we perceive that in order to handle the gay thing themselves, Church authorities, which often enough includes such lay authorities as run Catholic educational enterprises, reduce the whole matter to sex. They are often enough notoriously bad at dealing with any of the lived moral issues which those not dependent on the clerical...

The Shape of Desire

Historian David Halperin identifies four historical classifications of men and male desire which, though still potentially discontinuous, seem frequently to converge in the modern world to form what we recognize as male homosexuality (Halperin 2002 106-37). These are (1) Effeminacy, in which the male prefers activities associated with women, such as art or love rather than those expected of men such as war, athletics, or ascetic practices. (2) Active sodomy (or pederasty), in which a normal male sexually penetrates subordinate males and in which the erotic aspect is assumed to be unidirectional and correlated with differences (in age, station, etc.) between those engaged. (3) Male friendship or love emphasizing mutuality in which the more egalitarian nature of the relationship serves to immunize it from erotic interpretation. (4) Sexual inversion or passivity, in which the male not only allows penetration by another man, but desires and takes pleasure in it, this deviancy being the...

Theology and Culture

The media-world is the shelter where the vast majority of those of us who live in the West dwell and from which we draw the material out of which we make sense of our lives. It is under the canopy of the media that we imbibe, speculate about and negotiate the meaning of love, friendship, beauty, happiness, truth, hope, pain, grace, luck, work, sacrifice, and death. The mediated world of electronic images, sounds, and printed words provides us with our most broadly shared symbols, icons, myths and rituals - the signs with which we enlighten ourselves, search for consolation, and establish our bearings. In some ways organized religion has failed us but in other ways this is simply due to the emergence of the datasphere and our exposure through it to other workshops of meaning in the world, other ways to assemble stories and symbols that give weight and direction to our existence. Many of these stories and symbols sprang originally from authentic religious traditions, but now float free,...

The Great Division

Yet for all the obvious forces pushing European Christians toward a rapprochement with Islam, the potential divisions are still daunting. Given its dominant position within European Christianity, the attitudes of the Roman Catholic Church are critical for future interactions between the faiths. Both at the Vatican level and within individual nations, we can see a continuing conflict between very different attitudes to Islam. Under John Paul II, the church demonstrated a real openness to Muslims as believers, and as allies in struggles against Western secularism. On several occasions, the Pope spoke of his Muslim brothers. In 1985, he urged that we have to respect each other and stimulate each other in good works upon the path indicated by God. . . . believers should foster friendship and union among humanity and the people who comprise a single community on earth. John Paul was also the first pope to enter a mosque, in Damascus in 2001.15

The man Jesus

He enjoyed social gatherings and good fellowship. He craved friendship. He quickly saw through the individuals whom he met. He was quick to discern and scorn insincerity, pomposity, and pride, but he was fully as prompt to penetrate beneath the surface into hidden and bewildered frustrations and timid longing for the good.

Sex without Ends

The history of modern sex can be told as a turn inward, toward sexual subjectivity over against social constraints, toward personal fulfillment over against economic alliances and household management, toward love over against procreation. Modern sex, at its best, is an inter-subjective reality. It is an expression of the sexual self, and the self is drawn, through this need for expression, into relationships that are conceived as sexual. Those who identify a relationship as something social, as a marriage or friendship, are likely to identify a distinct sexual relationship that coexists along with or within their practical or public relationships. This relation between the sexual self and a discrete sexual sphere corresponds, ironically, with the dominance of an impersonal industrial economy and anonymous political relations. While sex has been freed, supposedly, from social and economic constraints, the very idea of a pre-social sexual sphere has come to serve contractual...

The Truth About Hell

Yes, I do, and I'd like to say something about that. Whenever you're trying to start a friendship with any person, you don't understand everything about him and you don't necessarily agree or feel good about every view he holds. But you have to ask, on balance, do you trust this person enough to want to enter a friendship with him

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