The role of the state

Above all - and this is the third point to be stressed regarding the overall development of secondary education - the modern state increasingly tended to consider teaching as falling under its sole jurisdiction, following the principle that the church is within the state. To be sure, in Hanoverian England, the state actually became less interested in secondary and higher education, viewing neither as matters of state concern. The reforms which were carried out, such as university teaching of the natural sciences, were only partial, and depended mainly on internal factors (the organization of liberal arts courses, pedagogical approaches, or the university's finances). So too in the United Provinces, the resolutely federal structure of the state and the regional bases of sovereignty precluded any general reforms. Yet we have already mentioned the early initiatives towards sweeping educational transformations taken by certain German states such as Saxony-Gotha, Brunswick and Prussia, even though the results were not always equal to the ambitions. Such reforms indicate a desire both to provide the state administration with competent

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