The uncertainties arising from the Edict of Toleration coincided with the culmination ofthe fateful Rites Controversy amongst the European missionaries, a controversy which had started with Matteo Ricci's policy of accommodation. Essentially but by no means exclusively a contest between the Jesuits and the mendicants, it involved three distinct problems. The first was the so-called 'Term question', that is, how to express the name God and other important concepts in Chinese. The second was the question of whether or not Christians should be forbidden to take part in ceremonies honouring Confucius and the cult of ancestors. Finally, there was the question of whether Christians should be permitted to participate in community activities that involved honouring non-Christian divinities.
The conflict between the two camps intensified when the French secular priest Charles Maigrot, Vicar Apostolic of Fujian, attacked the Jesuit position on the Chinese rites in his Mandate of 1693. It condemned Jesuit practices
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