The Peace of Westphalia in 1648 confirmed the Treaty of Augsburg of 1555, with some important modifications. In addition to territories ruled by Catholic princes or prince-bishops, and territories ruled by Lutheran princes, Calvinist princes were now also accepted as equals within the legal framework of the Holy Roman Empire. The Lutheran and Calvinist princes were also the official heads of the churches in their states. In most Lutheran and Calvinist territories within the empire, church government was entrusted to consistories. Superintendents were in charge of supervising deans who in turn were obliged to control church life down to the parish level in villages and towns. The consistories were also in charge of organizing the education of future pastors; they had to control the way active pastors fulfilled their duties; they were responsible
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