The religious polarization resulting from the anti-Jesuit campaign in France and Portugal began to affect Spain directly shortly afterthe accession of Charles III when, in 1761, the Spanish Grand Inquisitor published the Roman Congregation's condemnation of Mesenguy's Jansenist catechism without royal authorization. Whereupon the newly crowned King Charles III obliged the inquisitor to rescind the publication and to submit himself to a humiliating apology. What was at issue was less Jansenism - a Jansenist movement was less a cause than a product of the expulsion of the Jesuits in Spain - than the principle of royal versus ecclesiastical authority and the independence from Rome of the Spanish Inquisition. In defending Mesenguy's catechism, Charles III was defending his former tutor, Bernardo Tanucci, who had sponsored the Italian translation of Mesenguy in Naples and who now acted as chief minister for Charles's son Ferdinand IV who had taken his father's place as king in this Bourbon outpost. While not exactly aJansenist either, Tanucci corresponded constantly with Bottari about the Jesuits, detesting them as agents of curial power. Although no longer Charles's tutor, he remained one of the Spanish king's most trusted and influential confidants.
The tide of anti-Jesuitism was thus not even to spare Spain, the birthplace of Ignatius Loyola himself, as the impact produced by the anti-Jesuit campaign widened to include other Catholic kingdoms in their turn. This was despite a concordat negotiated by Charles III's predecessor Ferdinand VI in 1753 that gave the Bourbon crown as much control over the Catholic Church in Spain as the Gallican rights gave the same dynasty in France. As in Portugal, however, the society's presence in Spain seemed unassailable, beginning with the confessors at the royal court and the stranglehold on the education of the upper nobility and promotion to the higher echelons of royal service. (Resentment by recently promoted university-trained manteistas in the royal councils against the entrenched blue-blooded Jesuit-educated colegiales was not the least of the unannounced causes of the Jesuits' downfall in Spain.) While the Jesuit leadership in Spain tended to be as regalist as in France - even supporting the concordat of 1753 - the society remained a symbol of papal power all the same. Nor were Spanish Jesuits any less hostile to the Treaty of Madrid than their colleagues in Portugal, since the missions most affected were Spanish rather than Portuguese.
It was the popular uprising known as the Hat and Cloak Riots of 23-25 March 1766 in Madrid that provided the occasion for the expulsion of the
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