Protestant missions and African rights in South Africa

The eighteenth-century Protestant evangelical movement, as we have seen, served to revive missionary interest in general. Thus was founded in 1795 the London Missionary Society (LMS), and other related bodies such as the Netherlands Missionary Society of Rotterdam (1797), the mission school in Berlin founded in 1800 by Pastor Johann Janicke of the Brethren Church, and in 1815 the Basel school that supplied recruits for British missions. The Netherlands Missionary Society picked up the African connection established by the Moravians in the 1740s when John Theodore Vanderkemp went out as a missionary to South Africa. The Cape had been colonized by the Protestant Dutch from 1652, with the Dutch settlers, or Boers, pressing inland in search of land, viewing themselves as a people in covenant with God, and encroaching upon the local African populations. In 1795, the Cape had been occupied by Britain, then at war with the Netherlands; the occupation became permanent after 1806. Vanderkemp arrived at the Cape in 1799, establishing a mission to the hard-pressed Khoi at Bethelsdorp on Algoa Bay, 400 miles east of Cape Town. He made a dramatic entrance into the politics of the slave trade when

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