century appeared more and more out of step with the evolution of science and technology and corresponded less and less to the demands of the various social groups. The article, 'Colleges', written by d'Alembert for the Encyclopédie (1753), argued that a young man lost the ten best years of his life learning a dead language. He promoted rather a curriculum which included history, foreign languages, geometry, and experiments in physics. In any case, one can observe a certain 'scholarization' of the apprenticeships available to the elites. An earlier academy for nobles established at the beginning of the seventeenth century, the Collegium illustre in Tübingen, was cut short by the wars. But later in the century local political leaders (like those of Turin in 1678, Wolfenbüttel in 1688, or Nancy-Luneville in 1699) pushed for new academies, in which accomplishments like dancing and drawing were taught, together with martial skills (riding, fencing, military exercises with pikes and muskets) and other subjects useful for future military officers (arithmetic, geometry, the attack and defence of fortifications, history, geography, and foreign languages). Entry was usually at adolescence, following study either in a conventional Latin school or through private tutoring.13 Recruitment to such schools long conserved two particular features: they were both international, receiving many foreign aristocrats in the course of their 'Grand Tours'; and inter-denominational, practising a de facto ecumenism, in which Calvinists, Lutherans, and Catholics all lived together.

In fact, alongside the traditional humanist model created at the end of the sixteenth century, a whole range of private and public initiatives developed in the eighteenth century, offering broader educational options in response to the professional needs of diverse social groups. Training which had previously consisted of lengthy practical experience under military engineers or architects, or at different commercial trading posts in Atlantic or Mediterranean ports, now took the form of instruction in specialized schools. The models for such education could be extremely varied. Some of the older grammar schools, like those in Manchester, or Newcastle, or Christ's Hospital in London, updated their courses by offering teaching in mathematics and navigation. At the same time, different forms of technical training emerged in various European countries, usually including a period of boarding, and a range of complementary classes. There were preparatory schools, often state-supported, for the technical branches of the army (marine, artillery, engineers); and soon preparatory schools emerged for civil engineers, architects, and merchants. In Catholic countries such schools were especially developed by the Christian Brothers, whose rules, as we have seen, forbade their members to learn Latin.

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