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Malesherbes, Chretien-Guillaume de

Lamoignon de 211, 218-20 Mandrou, Robert 185 Mansart, Francois 232, 233 Marchetti, Giovanni 304, 307 Maria I of Portugal 26

Maria Theresa of Austria 10, 21, 28-9 and Protestantism 46, 351 and Roman Catholicism 75, 95 Marie de l'Incarnation 181, 200 Marillac, Louise de 103,176 marriage: and Council of Trent 180 and divorce 174 and economy 80-1 inter-racial 182-4 as spiritual union 173-4 Martellange, Abbe Etienne 232 Martino, Ernesto de 187 Mary Blessed Virgin 158, 412, 580 in Asian art 438, 468, 469 Our Lady of Copacabana 381 shrines 188,198, 200, 569 Virgin of Guadaloupe 380 Maryland 392

and freedom of religion 353,394, 397, 497 maskilim 216

Massachusetts: and Anglicanism 393 and antislavery movement 418, 521 and Congregationalism 354, 511 and Half-Way Covenant 341,399 and Puritans 394, 399 and religious freedom 511 and revivalism 405, 406-7 Massillon, Jean-Baptiste 141,142 materialism: and Enlightenment 273, 274-7, 278, 279, 286, 593 and pornography 274-5 mathematics 251

and infinity 255-8 Mather, Cotton 331, 405, 521 Mather, Increase 405 Maury, Jean-Siffrein 135, 221 Max-Joseph, Elector ofBavaria 570 Maxwell, Governor of Sierra Leone 431 Mayhew, Jonathan 407, 501 Maza, Sarah 298

Mazarin, Cardinal Jules 15,18, 21, 232 meditation, and pietism 330 Mendelssohn, Moses 49, 215-16 mendicants 89,100-1,103,107 jurisdictional disputes 455-6 lifestyle 455

and mission 3, 451, 452-3, 459, 462 Mennonites 269,352,354, 363 in France 566

in North America 396, 404, 502 Mercedarians 101,376,379, 387 Mercier, Louis-Sebastien 244 Mesenguy Francois-Philippe 318,319

Methodism: and antislavery movement 522,

526, 529

class meetings 7,172 clergy 124

and enthusiasm 297

and established church 345-7

in France 566

growth 578

in Ireland 578

in North America 342, 346, 503-4, 513, 529 and Pietism 111,172 and preaching 128 and renewal 577-8 and role of women 167,172-3,181 Metz, and Jewish community 214-15, 217-18 Mexico: and church and state 375 and female convents 181, 383,384 and Jesuits 385 and mission 3, 389 and popular religion 380-1 and religious orders 378,385 Michaelis, Johann David 217, 220 middle classes, and Protestant clergy 109,111,

112,125 Mill, James 485-6 millennialism 330, 581-5 in England 582-4 in France 217, 582 and French Revolution 10, 581, 583 in Ireland 584 and the Jews 332 and national identity 499 in North America 514 and Pietism 7, 584-5 and prophetic movement 582-5, 593 in Scotland 69 Millin, Michel de 232, 244 Milne, William 492 miracles 188,191,194 mission: in Africa 411-18, 427-9

and colonization 3-4,180-2, 411-12, 454-6 and imperialism 4 in India 3,181, 437-44

and indigenous agency 428, 445, 448, 464-6 in Latin America 387-90 in North America 3, 4, 400-3 parish 385-6

and Pietism 4, 7,37,39,181 and reawakening 10, 332, 579 and religious orders 103,133,180-1 and rivalries 458 and role of women 170,180-2 to slaves 402, 409, 522

and trade 416, 417, 444, 446-7, 449 and world religions 475-93 missionary societies 52 Missions Etrangères de Paris 449, 459, 464, 466,

467, 492

Modena, Leone da 209 moderatism 5 Molina, Luis 305, 307 Molinos, Miguel de 332,333 Moluccas, and Christian missions 449 monarchy: and American Revolution 508 composite 54, 55 constitutional 592 divine right theories 58, 63, 307-8 and French Revolution 549, 550 Monter, William 201 Montesquieu, Charles-Louis de Secondat de 271, 350 Moravians 7,39,111,129,352 and mission 181, 402-3, 427 in North America 339,343,396, 402-3, 404, 522

and revivalism 337, 344, 345, 346, 580 and role of women 167,171-2,181 and sexuality 173 More, Hannah 528, 578 Morrison, Robert 466, 492 Mosheim, Johann Lorenz von 48,135,144 Mouchon, Pierre 294 Muggletonians 583 Mughal Empire 434, 439 Mühlenberg, Henry Melchior 339,396, 504 Müller, Adam 586, 592 Mungello, David E. 463 Muratori, Ludovico Antonio 28, 93 Murray, James 404 Murray Margaret 185 music 94, 245

Muslims, in Europe 3,171; see also Islam mysticism: evangelical 332-4, 338 female 171,173,177, 333, 382, 395

Nantes, Edict of 91, 227

265, 349

Naples, Kingdom of:and architecture 236 and church and state 27, 93, 99,106,164 and Jesuits 302,321,323 Napoleon Bonaparte: and church and state 556, 564-9, 582 and clergy 326, 572 and Holy Alliance 575-94 and Jews 222-3, 567

Napoleon Bonaparte (cont.) and papacy 326, 564-6, 572-3 and Protestantism 566-7 religious policies and practices 569-73 and resistance movements 588-91 Native Americans: and American independence 509 and confessional competition 392 as Lost Tribe of Israel 331 and mission 387-90,393, 400-3, 501 and popular religion 379-86 and Puritans 399, 402 and religious orders 377,383, 403 naturalism, Enlightenment 276 nature: scientific understanding 258-61, 266, 271

and the supernatural 187-9 Neander (Mendel), David 586 Necker, Jacques 298-9 neo-Classicism, and sermons 138-41 Nepal, and Roman Catholicism 443 Neri, St Philip 97,385 Netherlands: and Christian reunion movements 362,366-7 and church and state 18,19,137,363 and clergy 113,118,121 and education 155,159 and Enlightenment thought 48 and mission 427 and Napoleonic policies 572 and popular religion 196-8 and Protestantism 47 and revivalism 337-8 and secularism 279-80 and toleration 171,192,353-4, 357,363-4, 572 Netherlands Missionary Society 427 New England: and Anglicanism 501 and antislavery movement 418 and Congregationalism 354, 367, 368, 403 and Dissent 503

and Puritanism 168,175, 394,397-400, 405 and revivalism 340-2, 405 New France see Canada; Quebec New Harmony 585 New York: and Anglicanism 394

and Dutch Reformed Church 394, 395 and Protestantism 502 Newman, Richard 530 Newton, Isaac 254, 272, 285, 289 and calculus 254 and infinity 254, 255, 256-7 Principia 251, 254, 256, 258, 266 Newton, John 134, 422

Nieuwentyt, Bernard 273 Nijmegen, Peace of (1679) 22 Nobili, Robert de 401, 440, 480-1, 482 Nonconformity: fragmentation 367 and reunion movements 362-3, 367 and toleration 355, 358-9 see also Dissent; Pietism Nonjurors: in England 60, 61, 361 in France 546-51, 557, 558, 560-2 North America 392-410

early French and English settlement 393-7 and Enlightenment thought 498 and establishment and dissent 500-4 and mission 3, 4, 400-3 and revival 7,10, 338-42, 347, 403-10 and revolution 8-9

and Roman Catholicism 180, 392, 393,395,

403-4, 497, 508 and toleration 353, 367-8, 394, 395, 396-7 see also Anglicanism; Baptists; Canada; Congregationalism; Massachusetts; New England; Pennsylvania; Presbyterianism; United States Novalis (Friedrich Leopold von

Hardenberg) 570, 586 novels, and sentiment 293, 294, 296, 585 nuncios, papal 21, 28 Nylander, Gustavus 429

Occasional Conformity Act (1711) 359 Oetinger, Friedrich Christoph 260, 334 omnipotence, divine 189 Oratorians: church buildings 232, 241 in France 97,103,159 in Italy 104 in Latin America 385 in South and South-east Asia 447, 448 oratory, pulpit 128-44 orders, religious 89 in colonies 180-1 and Counter-Reformation 194 discalced 101,103, 459 in East Asia 451, 457-8, 459 and education 103,104,105,154,158-9,164, 176

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