various groups associated with the Jansenists. The best-known schools were those run by the Christian Brothers, founded by Jean-Baptiste de La Salle. In northern Germany similar objectives were sought in the context of charity schools and orphanages. The Lutheran Pietists played an important role in this movement, especially under the influence of the Halle orphanage created by August Hermann Francke. The Pietists' orphanage foundation owned its own press and widely circulated low-cost religious texts. Thus, between 1720 and 1735 no less than thirty-nine editions of the New Testament and some twenty-three editions of a small format family Bible were printed.

There were, of course, differences between Protestant and Catholic Europe in the various movements to discipline and educate orphans and the children of the poor. Thus, Lutheran Pietism stressed the Bible, psalm recital, and direct contact with the Scriptures (the Bible being used for reading), and these elements, reinforced in the home, invariably strengthened a strong confessional identity. But one can also draw up a lengthy list of similarities in the educational activities of the two confessions. All such institutions, whether Protestant or Catholic, were moved by the goal of instilling in their pupils both Christian civility - the love of truth, obedience, zeal for work - and more 'practical' knowledge. Facing a growing number of students, pedagogic institutions reacted in a manner characteristic of early modern power structures in general, imposing sanctions to distinguish individuals according to ability, merit, and a quantitatively assessed 'level'. Repetitive school work to check and control learning was also integrated into a system of reciprocal and hierarchical supervision. Pedagogy came to resemble an analytical science, breaking down time and space to allow the teacher to focus on microscopic detail unhindered, and to detect immediately any individual not acting according to the rules. A highly ritualized schedule was developed in which the day was punctuated with regular lectures, exercises, and prayer so as to eliminate disorder and confusion. To strengthen the schoolmaster's authority over his young charges, a similarly ritualized system of punishment and reward was established. Separated from the outside and from the bustle of the town, a rigid procedure of study was installed inside a space divided up into particular areas for classes, within which each pupil found his allotted place. Teaching material was identical for every child at each level ofthe curriculum, and final examinations or continuous assessment indicated clearly a student's readiness to move to a higher level. Modern pedagogy thus emerged from the need to impose order and coherence on the undisciplined body ofschoolchildren from various social classes constituting the 'people' of the towns. In the France of 1790, the Christian Brothers' schools provided 35,000 pupils with schooling in

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