to huge numbers of refugees and by receiving intellectual currents from elsewhere. Thus the Dutch escaped the dominance of a Reformed Orthodoxy and eased their way into a range of views with a minimum of separatism, while they ensured toleration for foreign Dissenters such as Moravians. All parties had to make their way on a basis of persuasion. This became clear in the ministry of Theodor Untereyck (1635-93), regarded as the Spener of Reformed Germany. He managed to seal off the late seventeenth-century Labadist secessions from Reformed Orthodoxy by a combination of thunderous Voetian preaching (following the stern Calvinist teachings of Gisbert Voetius) and seeking to turn every household into a house-church. In short he was halfway to revivalism; and the evolution was taken further by his successor Friedrich Adolf Lampe (1692-1729). Admitting that the church could not consist entirely of the elect, Lampe required the elect to stand at the conclusion of the sermon and receive a special message. This was termed 'discriminating' preaching, and it shows how the necessities of the churches were driving the ministers towards revivalism. It was this tradition which Theodorus Jacobus Frelinghuysen, a minister in East Friesland recruited by the Amsterdam classis for service in New Jersey, took to the New World and which enabled him to bed comfortably with the revivalist Tennent family.

The hero figure of Rhineland spirituality was Gerhard Tersteegen (16971769), the most celebrated of Protestant mystics. A lay witness who abstained from the Reformed sacraments, but was not a Quaker, Tersteegen built on the legacy of Poiret; his faith consisted in the love of God and the denial of self, and began predictably with withdrawal from the world. But revival was in the air in and about his stamping ground in the Duchy of Berg. Amid a series of revivals between 1720 and 1760, revivalists found themselves overwhelmed and called on his help. He gave up his lay calling and devoted himself to personal contact, correspondence and preaching with a great range of house-groups and individuals between Switzerland and the United Provinces. He became a revivalist because his public would not let him escape, and his hymns caught on quickly everywhere.

Watching briefs for America were kept for the Reformed by the Amsterdam and Heidelberg classes, and for the Lutherans by Halle. The former did not try to propagate the high Orthodoxy of the Dutch Reformed in New York, which was not much use to the Dutch diaspora in New Jersey, still less to the assimilated Huguenot and Palatine settlers who threw in their lot with them. These Reformed groups in the New World were provided for by Guiliam Bartholf, a Voetian from Sluis, and by another Voetian from East Friesland, Theodorus Jacobus Frelinghuysen. They were the real founders of the Dutch Reformed

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