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the efforts of Jefferson and his supporters to erect a 'wall of separation between church and state'.18

Serious grievances against revenue policies or belief in a provident or benevolent God were necessary but not sufficient bases for the Revolution. The revolutionaries also came to claim that monarchy itself, at least in the British style, was against the will of God. Baptists spoke of soul liberty, a theme that might have irritated conservatives in the staid establishments, but Baptists could link with Enlightenment-minded statesmen in calling for an enlargement of human liberty on any of a number of grounds. Humans, such church people claimed, were made in the divine image, and they could realize the effects of this only if arbitrary authority - and King George III and all he stood for, were such - were removed. Still, Baptists and other Calvinists often came to the patriot side more or less by instinct, not by ideology.

With rebellious doctrines came what already shows up as a positive affirmation: that is, individuals were capable of making decisions about their politics on the basis of informed conscience. Indeed, their separate faiths now demanded that they do so. They came to claim that their version of Christianity was supportive of this revolutionary individualism and expressive of freedom. The political philosopher Hannah Arendt noted how they all came to aver this, but she asked, with good credence, why it had taken so long for the biblical support of republican (and democratic) liberties to appear. Where were Christian advocates like those of 1776 from the beginnings until then? She did not want to take away from their impulses and claims, and she did not disagree that the sacred cause of liberty had been latent in biblical and other religious texts. But she said that before developing the claim they at least ought to acknowledge - I would say they ought figuratively to send a card of thanks to modernity, also known as the Enlightenment - for having provided a rationale and a motivator.19

One of the more radical steps eventually taken was an explicit call for independence. Throwing off the yoke of a colonizing power was unprecedented. Benjamin Franklin, who always kept a soft spot in his heart and a hard argument in his head in respect to England, where he lived during much of this period, was reluctant to make the call for a break early on. Curiously, one of the first to foresee independence was not a Protestant. The wealthy Catholic, Charles Carroll of Carrollton in Maryland, was a member of a landed clan of Catholics. While studying in England in 1763, he came to see the logic of independence and to envision that America 'will and must be independent'. He became the only Catholic signer of the Declaration of Independence. Moreover, his distant cousin, John Carroll, America's first Catholic bishop, was a

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