in Basel and when, a few years later, Bible societies were created in a number of German cities. In both of these cases, important outside support had come from anti-revolutionary Protestant circles in Great Britain. The members ofthe 'Ch.ristentumsgesellsch.aft' saw themselves as fighting for a common cause, and also to be within the tradition of Pietism. Most certainly, these groups opposing Enlightened despotism represented the beginning of a religious revival within continental Protestantism that lasted well into the nineteenth century and which embodied the 'Erweckungsbewegung', that is, the German Protestant equivalent to the Second Great Awakening in North America or the Reveil in Protestant French-speaking Switzerland. After the Napoleonic Wars were over, in most Protestant territories of Germany a compromise had to be found between the remaining representatives of the Enlightenment, the new followers of Pietism, and some circles for whom, in the turmoil of the times, Protestant orthodoxy had assumed an unexpected attraction. In the course of the nineteenth century, this compromise was challenged by liberalism and socialism and, above all, by German nationalism which had erupted in unexpected ways for the first time in the fight against Napoleon in 1813.

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